1995 Guy Fawkes Eve Buzzer Explosion Questions by Arizona State University Toss-Ups by Arizona State University 1) First mentioned in Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain, this man was a hostage given to the invading Caesar by the Britons as tribute. Later, as king of Britain, he maintained peace with the Romans, but his sons Guiderius and Arviragus refused to pay tribute to the Romans after his death, spurring another invasion. Around 1610, Shakespeare uses this man's life as the basis for a play in which the cynical Iachimo attempts to destroy the marriage of the princess Imogen and Posthumus Leonatus. FTP, name the man and the play. ANSWER: _Cymbeline_ 2) Among other literary efforts, this man wrote one of the best comedies of the Italian Renaissance, The Mandrake, and a novella entitled Belfagor, in which the title character, a demon, comes to Earth to determine if marriage is the principal cause of the damnation of mortals. But he is better known for works he composed in exile between 1513 and 1517. FTP, name this man who wrote both the Discourses and another famous work when the return of the Medici to Florence temporarily made him unemployed. ANSWER: Nicolo _Machiavelli_ 3) For this question, you need only give the common surname. The son served some in Parliament, but he was more interested in writing, creating the earliest history of art in the English langauge, as well as the behemoth work Correspondence and the first English gothic novel, The Castle of Otranto. The father was the leader of the Whig party and was twice Prime Minister of England, and was a champion of free trade, before his ministry fell in 1742. FTP, give the common surname of these Earls of Orford. ANSWER: _Walpole_ (Horace and Robert) 4) He was estranged from his father, and he became a warrior with the Mtetwa tribe, under Dingiswayo. Later, he became chief of his own tribe, and he revolutionized their fighting tactics by introducing the assegai, a light javelin, and by organizing his warriors into disciplined units that fought in close formation behind large cowhide shields. FTP, name this man, who in 1819 defeated the Ndwandwe people at the Battle of Gqokoli Hill, an event which signaled the beginning of the Zulu empire in Natal. ANSWER: _Shaka_ Zulu 5) First he attempted to sell the idea of a spinning cannon projectile to the British war office during the Crimean War. They turned him down. So he went to France, where an impertinent artillery officer told him that the cannon would have to be stronger in order to shoot a spinning projectile without blowing up. So he went out and created a method to make stronger cannon, which others rapidly copied. However, the others failed to use phosphorus-free iron, and made bad cannon, and called this man a charlatan. He had the last laugh, though, growing rich off of his steelworks in Sheffield, and being knighted in 1879. FTP, name this man who created the process of steel production bearing his name. ANSWER: Sir Henry _Bessemer_ 6) Chinchaysuyu, Antisuyu, Cuntisuyu, and Collasuyu are the four quarters of their empire, a land they called Tawantinsuyu, which appropriately enough means "Land of the Four Quarters". Their creator god is called Wiraqocha, while Pachamama represents the Earth, Killa the Moon, and Mamaqocha the water. The empire was first organized under the rule of Pachakuti, who ruled from 1438 to 1471, but less than one hundred years later it itself was conquered. FTP, name this empire whose last ruler was Atahualpa. ANSWER: _Inca_(n) Empire 7) They were largely the inspiration of James Farmer, and the first ones began on May 4, 1961, eventually ending short of their goal on May 14 in Birmingham. Because no police were on hand to control the riots which occured because of them, Robert Kennedy sent 500 U.S. Marshals under the direction of Byron White to Alabama to help maintain order. It is thought that overall, about 1000 people participated in twelve of these events. FTP, name these events which were used to help end segregation in Southern interstate bus terminals. ANSWER: _Freedom Rides_ 8) A major influence on this person was his father, who as town bandmaster experimented with tone clusters, polytonality, quartertones, and acoustics. A successful insurance agent, he eventually damaged his health by devoting long hours to both business and music, and because of sickness he composed little new music after 1917. Later, a performance of his 3rd Symphony would garner him the 1942 Pulitzer Prize, but he was so dismayed by winning he gave the money away. FTP, name this American composer, best known for The Unanswered Question, Three Places in New England, and Concord Sonata. ANSWER: Charles _Ives_ 9) He spent part of the 1930s as commander of the Guandong Army, in which capacity he sought to separate Mongolia from Soviet influence, going so far as to create the autonomous republic of Inner Mongolia. Later, he used the Marco Polo Bridge incident as an excuse to send his army into war with China. Back home, he became War Minister, a position he held from 1940 to 1944, but this was not the only position he held during this time. FTP, name this man who engineered the downfall of Konoe Fuminaro and who became Japan's Prime Minister just in time for Pearl Harbor. ANSWER: _Tojo_ Hideki 10) While he wrote many works on politics and history, he also wrote philosophical works, including "Herr Eugen During's Revolution in Science" and "Ludwig Feuerbach and the end of classical German philosophy". He was secretary for Spain, Portugal, and Italy in the General Council of the First International, although he lived in England, and was born in Germany. FTP, name this man, author of The Dialectics of Nature, and collaborator with Karl Marx. ANSWER: Friedrich _Engels_ 11) Orphaned at an early age, he was brought up by his grandfather and uncle, both members of the Quraysh, the tribe responsible for maintaining the local religious icon. Later, in his twenties, he married a wealthy widow, who freed him from financial concerns, bore him seven children, and supported his meditations. And still later, according to one legend, he was poisoned by a women who sought to test his ability to prophecy the future. FTP, name this man who spent much time in a cave in Mount Hira before his supposed vision of the angel Gabriel. ANSWER: _Muhammad_ 12) First discovered in 1911 by a German entomologist named Kattwinkel, it was up to geologist Hans Reck to relocate it and explore it in 1913. 300 feet deep and with five main beds of lake, stream, and volcanic deposits, it opens a geologic "window in time" from 1.8 million years ago, at the bottom of Bed I, to 17,000 years ago, near the top. FTP, name this area on the edge of the Serengeti Plain, famous for the discoveries made there by Louis Leakey. ANSWER: _Olduvai_ Gorge 13) The son of an abolitionist, he grew up on a farm in southern Wisconsin, became a schoolmaster, lost his right arm at Shiloh, and became a professor of geology at Illinois Wesleyan University. In 1881, he became the second director of the fledgling U.S. Geological Survey, and he was also instrumental in establishing the Bureau of American Ethnology. FTP, name this man, who along with six crew members descended the Green and Colorado Rivers in 1869, and who gave his name to a large artificial lake on the Colorado in southern Utah. ANSWER: John Wesley _Powell_ 14) Brunsbuttel, Burg, Rendsburg, and Kronshagen, all cities in Schleswig-Holstein, lie along it. For a quick ten points, name this waterway opened in June 1895, which extends from the Elbe to the Baltic, and which is named for the German seaport at its Baltic terminus. ANSWER: _Kiel_ Canal 15) Discovered by Davy in 1807, it remained a laboratory curiosity until Oersted showed in 1824 how it could be used to help make pure aluminum metal. Oersted's discovery led to the creation of a process to isolate this element, a process rendered obsolete by the introduction of Down's process in 1921. Since it oxidizes instantly upon exposure to air, it is stored under kerosene. FTP, name this element with one stable and five radioactive isotopes, a silvery-white maleable metal which burns with yellow flame, and which, if you need to know, combines with chlorine to make salt. ANSWER: _Sodium_ 16) Taken to France in 1789 to be educated, he came to the Mill Grove estate, near Philadelphia, in 1803. After 1807, he was a merchant at Louisville and Henderson in Kentucky, and later worked at the Western Museum in Cincinnati, beginning in 1820. During an 1826 trip to England and Scotland, he procured the services of Robert Havell, a London engraver, and with Havell's help he began to publish his life's artistic work. FTP, name this man who created The Birds of America. ANSWER: John James _Audubon_ 17) He developed a theory of resonance in the molecular structure of organic chemicals, studied the nature of serological reactions and the molecular structure of antitoxins, and with Campbell and Pressman produced synthetic antibodies. He also was instrumental in procuring the signatures of 52 Nobel Laureates for the Mainau Declaration of Nobel Laureates, which declared that "all nations must come to the decision to renounce force as a final resort of policy." FTP, name this chemist and peace activists who won Nobel Prizes for both his chemistry and his peace activity. ANSWER: Linus _Pauling_ 18) Born in 1882, he received his early education in Arizona, where he wrote for the Phoenix Morning Courier. He worked for the U.S. Consular Service in Budapest, Trieste, and Fiume from 1901 to 1904, and later returned to the region during World War I to command the U.S. air forces on the Italo-Austrian front, after resigning from the House of Representatives. He later returned to the House from 1923 until 1933, when he took the office for which he is most famous. FTP, name this three-term mayor of New York City. ANSWER: Fiorello _LaGuardia_ 19) One of his works translates as "On Husbandry", and it was written in imitation of Hesiod's Works and Days, with factual information supplied by Varro's De re rustica, or "On Farming". Another of his works consists of ten unrelated pastoral poems written in imitation of Theocritus. Born of a nouveau-riche father and well- connected mother, he studied at Cremona and Mediolanum before becoming a pupil of the Epicurean philosopher Saro at Naples. After he died, his tomb became an object of cult, and people attempted to foretell the future by opening his works and picking a line at random. FTP, name this Roman author of the Georgics, the Eclogues, and some bit of pulp fiction called The Aeneid. ANSWER: _Virgil_ (Publius Vergilius Maro) 20) He spent a portion of the 1770s as the secretary for a rich planter in the West Indies, and was captured by the British when he attempted to return home to New York in 1778. However, it was after his second capture in 1780 that he was remanded to the British ship Scorpion in New York harbor, and only after a period of torture and starvation was he exchanged as a prisoner of war. In his later life, he began publication of the National Gazzette, a vehicle to attack Alexander Hamilton, and he continued his lifelong love, writing poetry. FTP, name this creator of the poem The British Prison Ship, who earned the title "The Poet of the American Revolution". ANSWER: Philip _Freneau_ 21) Born between the years 1525 and 1530, he spent the years 1551-1555 in Italy, with the effect of this trip showing in such paintings as Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, which shows peasants in an idealized Italian setting, working where the cliffs meet the sea, either not noticing or not caring about the legs of Icarus just above the water. But he is more famous for a series of calendrical works executed around 1565. FTP, name this painter of The Harvesters, a work representing a late summer month, and the wintry work Hunters in the Snow. ANSWER: Pieter _Bruegel_ the Elder 22) Baltic (1922), comprising Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Finland. Balkan (1934), comprising Yugoslavia, Greece, Rumania, and Turkey. Little (1920), comprising Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Anglo- Russian (1907). Triple (1908), comprising Britain, Russia, and France. And Cordiale (1904), comprising Britain and France. FTP, the addition of what one word to all the foregoing completes the names of all these alliances? ANSWER: _Entente_ 23) In his younger days, he was a member of The Apostles; later, he married the ballerina Lydia Lopokova, but found that her brains did not match her beauty and thus had an affair with Duncan Grant. His fame rests partly on his use of the recently invented concept of the multiplier to create what was to become a dominant economic theory which turned Say's Law on its head by postulating that demand creates its own supply. FTP, name this man who thought that employing a person to dig a hole and fill it again was more beneficial to the economy than unemployment, and who wrote The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money in 1936. ANSWER: John Maynard _Keynes_ 24) That Night in Rio, Weekend in Havana, Springtime in the Rockies, The Gang's All Here, Four Jills in a Jeep, Greenwich Village, Something for the Boys, Doll Face, and If I'm Lucky comprise the bulk of the filmography of this star who died of a heart attack in 1955 following an appearance on TV. FTP, name this actress, born in 1909 in Marco de Canavezes in Portugal, and who starred in the movie Down Argentine Way after coming to America by way of Brazil (and if you need a further hint, she wore outrageous headpieces). ANSWER: Carmen _Miranda_ (or Maria do Carmo _Miranda_ da Cuhna) 25) Agon, Brahms-Schoenberg Quartet, Bugaku, Episodes, Four Temperments, Jewels, Serenade, Square Dance, and Symphony in Three Movements. All these works were created by this man, who emigrated to the United States in 1933 when invited by the philanthropist Lincoln Kirstein, with whom he created the School of American Ballet. FTP, name this Russian-born choreographer, who choreographed Stravinski's Apollo, Leader of the Muses, and in 1954 created the choreography seen every Christmas in the Nutcracker. ANSWER: George _Balanchine_ Boni 1) Given a description of a lymph gland, identify it for the stated number of points. a) For five points, this largest lymphoid organ is the size of a fist and is located in the left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm. b) For ten points, these lymph organs surround the pharynx and come in three varieties: palatine, lingual, and pharyngeal. c) For fifteen points, these large isolated clusters of lymph nodules, structurally similar to tonsils, are found in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestine. ANSWERS: _Spleen_, _Tonsils_, and _Peyer's Patches_ 2) Answer these questions about American History from the year 1850, for ten points each. a) This man introduced a series of resolutions in Congress on January 29, 1850, which eventually became the Compromise of 1850. b) This treaty, ratified on July 5, dictated that neither Great Britain nor the U.S. would exclusively control any future Central American canal. c) On June 3, representatives of nine slave states met at this forum, to discuss the Compromise of 1850. One resolution it adopted called for extending the Missouri Compromise line westward to the Pacific. ANSWERS: Henry _Clay_, the _Clayton-Bulwer_ Treaty, and the _Nashville Convention_ 3) All hail Border's! Only there (methinks) can one find the 2nd edition of Total Baseball for $12.95. And who cares about anything past the 1990 season anyway? Answer the following questions about the National Pastime for ten points each. a) This first baseman was one of the best players ever until a sinus infection caused him to miss the 1923 season. In 1920, he hit .407 and had 257 base hits, still the all-time record for a single season. b) These brothers were known as "Little Poison" and "Big Poison" during their days in the outfield playing for Pittsburgh. While "Big Poison" was the more powerful player, "Little Poison" holds the all-times record for singles in one season, and he is second to Joe Sewell in career at-bats per strikeout. c) And now for something completely different. This first concrete and steel stadium in the majors began its life in 1909 with a 515 foot left-center power alley, eventually brought down to 410 feet in 1969. Its last game hosting the Phillies was on October 1, 1970. FTP, name it. ANSWERS: George _Sisler_, _Waner_ (Paul and Lloyd), and _Shibe_ Park (or Connie _Mack_ Stadium) 4) Yeah, sure, you've heard of all of the English counties, but do you really know anything more, like where they are or what their capitals are? Let's find out: identify these English counties for ten points each. a) Located at one end of the Chunnel, its capital city is Maidstone, and principal cities include Chatham, Dover, and Canterbury. b) Located on the North Sea coast, it is just north of Essex. Principal cities include Bury and its capital, Ipswich. c) This English county, familar from popular literature, lies east of the northeastern Welsh border, south of the Mersey river, and north of Shropshire. Giving you the capital would give the question away... ANSWERS: _Kent_, _Suffolk_, and _Cheshire_ 5) For ten points each, name these women of religion. a) Born in 1774, this American woman earned the title Protestant Sister of Charity at a young age. But she later converted to Catholicism, moved to Maryland, and through her work laid the foundations of the American parochial school system. b) This Canadian evangelist was the founder of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel. A revivalist and faith-healer, she disappeared in 1926 and claimed to have been kidnapped. In 1944 she died from an overdose of sedatives. c) Although she revered Catholicism and had mystical experiences, she was never baptized and preferred to identify herself with the poor. Her philosophical writings include Gravity and Grace, Waiting on God, and The Need for Roots. If you're a math major, it may help if I tell you that her brother Andre was one of the great number theorists of the twentieth century. ANSWERS: Elizabeth Ann _Seton_, Aimee Semple _McPherson_, and Simone _Weil_ 6) Someone has to do it. Answer these questions about the Gunpowder Plot for the stated number of points. No, none of the answers is "Guy Fawkes". a) For five points, who was the ruler of England at the time of the plot? b) For ten points if exactly correct, or five if within ten years, in what year was Guy Fawlkes arrested with the gunpowder? c) For fifteen points, Robert Catesby originated the plot. Why, i.e. what was he mad about (there was an immediate reason)? The moderator is charged with determining if your one-sentence answer has the pertinent detail. ANSWER: _James I_, _1605_ (1595-1615 for five points), and a 1604 edict banishing priests from England (or anything equivalent) 7) From the world of fine arts I bring you dance. Identify the following famous dancers, or people associated with dance, for ten points each. a) This impresario has had perhaps the largest influence on 20th century ballet, founding the Ballet Russes in 1909 and employing the likes of Pavlova and Nijinsky. b) She started at the age of six in the act "Dainty June and her Newsboy Songsters," and she graduated from that to taking lessons from Tessie the Tassel Twirler, who told her "You've gotta leave them hungry for more. You don't dump the whole roast on the platter." Her autobiography was made into a Broadway musical and a 1962 film. c) This Irish woman's dancing caught the eye of the elderly King Ludwig of Bavaria, who showered presents upon her, and made her Countess of Lansfield. ANSWERS: Sergei _Diaghilev_, "Gypsy Rose" _Lee_, and Lola _Montez_ 8) Answer the following questions about eclipses for the stated number of points. a) For five points, what is the core of dark shadow caused by the ecliping body called? b) For five points, what is the annulus of softer shadow which surrounds the dark shadow core called? c) For ten points, the moon does not always reside in the plane defined by the Sun and the Earth. There is a line which connects the two points on the Moon's orbit where it does intersect the Sun- Earth plane. What is this line called? d) For a final ten points, during an solar eclipse, there can occur a situation where the Moon's edge is just tangent to the edge of the Sun, which causes the disappearing solar crescent to suddenly break up into a number of brilliant spots. What are these spots called? ANSWERS: _Umbra_, _Penumbra_, Line of _Nodes_, and _Baily Beads_ (acc. Baily's Beads for the last answer) 9) For ten points each, identify these bits from American labor history. a) First passed in 1916, this Act, known by two names (either acceptable), attempted to restrict from interstate commerce the products of child labor. It was repeatedly ruled unconstitutional. b) This "massacre" occured on July 6, 1892, when strikers at Carnegie Steel fired upon two barges in the Monongahela carrying 300 Pinkerton detectives. c) Occuring on March 25, 1911, this famed arson-set fire killed 146, and led to increased agitation for workplace reform by the International Ladies Garment Workers Union. ANSWERS: _Federal Child Labor_ Law or _Keating-Owen_ Act, _Homestead_ Massacre, and _Triangle_ Shirtwaist Fire 10) Identify these minerals from the Mohs scale on a 10-5 basis: ten points if you can identify the mineral given a description, or five if you need the Mohs scale number. a) 10: the deep red version is a ruby, the blue version is the sapphire, the transparent yellow version is oriental topaz, the violet version is oriental amethyst, and the green version is the oriental emerald. 5: second hardest, at 9. b) 10: also known as hydrous calcium sulfate, it can appear as transparent cleavable masses, called selenite, or also in a silky and fibrous state, called satin spar, among other states. 5: second softest, at 2. c) 10: this potassium-aluminum silicate is one of the three feldspars. 5: in the middle, at 6. ANSWERS: _Corundum_, _Gypsum_, and _Orthoclase_ 11) 30-20-10, identify this American literary figure. 30: Works include Life of Margaret Fuller, Sex and Education, and Modern Society, and the poetry collections Passion Flowers (1854) and Later Lyrics (1866). 20: This lecturer on social reforms edited the antislavery newspaper the Boston Commonwealth with her husband Samuel. 10: She wrote The Battle Hymn of the Republic. ANSWER: Julia Ward _Howe_ 12) Given the work of sculpture, identify the sculptor, for the stated number of points. a) For five points, The Gates of Paradise, on the doors of the Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence. b) For ten points, The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa. c) For fifteen points, this Constructivist completed only the model to Monument to the Third International; if he had completed the actual work, you'd know about it, since it was slated to be over 1300 feet tall. ANSWERS: _Ghiberti_, _Bernini_, and Vladimir _Tatlin_ 13) 30-20-10-5, name the revolutionary movement. 30: Their mission in life was to bring back the Constitution of 1876. As such they should be distinguished from a similarly-named group which preached reforms from 1865-1876, and from another similarly-named group of poseurs who came to power in 1918. 20: The constitution was restored in 1908, and this group dominated the subsequent parliament, until it was dissolved after the 1911 war with Italy. 10: Their Committee of Union and Progress, led by Enver Pasha (ne Bey), Jamal Pasha, and Talaat Bey, seized control of the government in 1913. 5: This two word name is often applied to up-and-coming groups of people striving to reverse the status quo. ANSWER: _Young Turks_ 14) Given a description, name the African-American author who also happens to be female, for ten points each. a) Before dying of cancer at age 34, she wrote the plays The Sign in Sidney Brustein's Window and A Raisin in The Sun. b) Born in Senegal, she was a servant for a Boston tailor who encouraged her poetry, which included the 1773 collection Poems on various Subjects, Religious and Moral. c) A professor of English, she is known for her politically charged works, which also show strong lesbian themes. Collections include The First Cities, Cables to Rage, Coal, and Chosen Poems, Old and New. ANSWERS: Lorraine _Hansbury_, Phyllis _Wheatley_, and Audre _Lorde_ 15) Can you tell your Greek philosopher-scientists apart? Identify the following, for ten points apiece. a) A student of Thales of Miletus, he is thought to have written the first work of consequence in Greek prose. He was perhaps the first to recognize the Earth's curvature, and he hypothesized that the substance apeiron filled the universe. b) This man was known as the "Copernicus of Antiquity," as he was the first to propose a heliocentric theory. c) Considered the founder of trigonometry, he determined the moon's parallax and the distance to the moon, discovered the precession of the equinoxes, made the first accurate star maps, and devised the first system for classifying stars by brightness. For all this, the European Space Agency named a satellite after him, which they promptly lost (then found again). ANSWERS: _Anaximander_, _Aristarchus_, and _Hipparchus_ 16) Identify the following Russian authors on a 10-5 basis. a) 10: This Ukranian first earned fame during his lifetime with the volumes of stories Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka (1831), Mirgorod (1832), and Arabesques (1835). 5: He is more famous for the comedy The Inspector General and the prose epic Dead Souls. b) 10: This man wrote over 500 short stories in a life that spanned only 44 years, but short stories are not what he is known for: Ivanov is an example of the genre of work for which he is known. 5: Other plays include The Bear, The Marriage Proposal, and Jubilee. c) 10: This playwright and novelist enjoyed a high reputation as a satirist of Soviet life in the 1920s, but suffered under censorship in the 1930s. Works include The White Guard, Black Snow, and The Heart of a Dog. 5: He is most famous for his novel The Master and Margarita. ANSWERS: Nikolai _Gogol_, Anton _Chekov_, and Mikhail _Bulgakov_ 17) This is a 30-20-10 bonus where all three clues have different answers. It works just a normal 30-20-10 bonus- once you get the answer, the question is over. The relation between the three answers is that they are all snooty, baguette-carrying French authors (or they are at least French authors, if not baguette- carrying). 30: He anticipated the Theater of the Absurd with his Ubu Roi, which is most famous for inspiring a bunch of rockers in Cleveland to name their group Pere Ubu. ANSWER: Alfred _Jarry_ 20: This dissolute man was an early symbolist, with Rimbaud and Mallerme, and he was also the leader of the Decadents. He is perhaps more famous for shooting Rimbaud than for his poetry, and he shares his first and last names with the lead singer of the band Television. ANSWER: Paul _Verlaine_ 10: His work Carmen was the basis of the Bizet opera. ANSWER: Prosper _Merimee_ 18) Identify these figures of Greek mythology for ten points each. a) As the first murderer, he was already in trouble. But trying to seduce Hera was his real screw-up, which led to his being tied to a perpetually rotating wheel in Hades, surrounded by snakes. b) In what would psychologically scar most people for life, Demeter ate part of his shoulder when he was offered up by his father as a meal for the gods. With the shoulder replaced by ivory, this King of Lydia went on, some claim, to found the Olympic Games. c) This King of Sipylus was the son of Zeus and Pluto, and he married Dione. His son was Pelops, the one killed and served up to the gods. He is most famous for the punishment Zeus carried out on him. ANSWERS: _Ixion_, _Pelops_, and _Tantalus_ 19) For the stated number of points, answer these questions about the psychology of learning. a) For five points, this Greek "armchair theorist" laid out in De Anima the three laws which account for the manner in which associations are made in the mind: the laws of Contiguity, Similarity, and Contrast. b) For ten points, this 1904 winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology worked out the principles of second- and third- order conditioning, trace reflex, delayed reflex, reinforcement, and inhibition of reflex. c) For fifteen points, this man worked with William James at Harvard, using problem boxes or mazes to determine how cats and dogs learn. His three major laws are those of Readiness, Exercise, and Effect. ANSWERS: _Aristotle_, Ivan _Pavlov_, and Edward Lee _Thorndike_ 20) How well do you know your ancient battles? Answer the following for the stated number of points. a) For five points, the Battle of Cannae occured in 216 B.C. in which war? b) For ten points, this naval battle of 31 B.C. ended the Roman Civil War, although Antony and Cleopatra did escape for the time being. c) For five points, identify the winning general of the 280 B.C. Battle of Asculum in southern Italy. d) For ten points, this naval battle of 405 B.C., in which Lysander suprised and overwhelmed the Greeks, was the beginning of the end for the Athenians in the Second Peloponnesian War. ANSWERS: _Second Punic_ War, Battle of _Actium_, King _Pyrrhus_ of Epirus, and Battle of _Aegospotami_ 21) Your humble question writer learned much about the Swing Era of jazz by seeing the recent documentary A Great Day in Harlem. Now, he's going to quiz you. Given the musician, name the instrument he played, for five points each. a) Art Tatum _Piano_ b) Art Blakey _Drums_ c) Dizzy Gillespie _Trumpet_ d) Lester Young _Tenor Sax_ e) Roy Eldridge _Trumpet_ f) Thelonius Monk _Piano_ 22) Answer the following scientific questions which may or may not have anything in common, for the stated number of points. a) For five points, the point contact type of this was invented by Bardeen and Brattain in 1948. b) For five points, this equation governs the evolution of a velocity distribution. c) For ten points, this is the process by which plants lose water vapor. d) For ten points, the existence of the cardinal number aleph-null is the result of the development of these numbers by George Cantor. ANSWERS: _Transistor_, Boltzmann _Transport_ Equation, _Transpiration_, and _Transfinite_ Numbers 23) Identify these people from the world of the Social Sciences for ten points each. a) The founder of modern linguistics, this man's course notes, Course in General Linguistics, came out in 1916, three years after his death. b) A philosopher and sociologist, he is most famous for a series of comparative works entitled Economic Ethics of the World Religions. c) This Canadian, famous for one quote and one quote only, wrote two major works: The Gutenberg Galaxy and Understanding Media. ANSWERS: Ferdinand de _Saussure_, Max _Weber_, and Marshall _McLuhan_ 24) How well do you know your Elizabethan playwrights who aren't Shakespeare? Identify the playwrights behind the following plays, for five points each. a) Volpone Ben _Jonson_ b) The Spanish Tragedy Thomas _Kyd_ c) Astrophel and Stella Sir Philip _Sydney_ d) Doctor Faustus Christopher _Marlowe_ e) Old Fortunatus Thomas _Dekker_ f) A Game at Chess Thomas _Middleton_ 25) I'll ask you about some places you might have heard of. You'll get 10 points if you can identify them off of a geographical clue, and 5 points if you need a historical clue also. a) 10: It lies on the coast in the French province of Artois, northwest of Ypres, and between the towns of St. Pol-sur-Mer and Malo-les-Bains. 5: In 1940, it was the site of the military exodus from northern France. b) 10: Lying on the north coast of Spain, it is east of Bilbao and Baracaldo, west of San Sebastian, and northwest of Pamplona, in Basque country. 5: It is the title of a painting inspired by an aerial bombing raid. c) 10: Lying on the Penwith peninsula in Cornwall, it is on the west shore of Mount's Bay, where St. Michael's Mount is located. 5: The town is in the title of a famous Gilbert and Sullivan operetta. ANSWERS: _Dunkirk_, _Guernica_, and _Penzance_ [Note to moderator: some hotshot might point out that many town and villages may fulfill the conditions of the 10 point clues. Remind them that protests are only valid if they happen to correctly identify another town or village which fulfills the conditions.]