1999 Terrapin Invitational Tournament
Boni by Kelly McKenzie

  1. For the stated number of points, identify these Roman festivals from descriptions.
    1. Celebrated at the winter solstice, this festival featured the closure of shops, schools, and courts, the interruption of war, and legalized gambling. Masters waited on their slaves, and a mock king was chosen and ruled for a week. Many features survive in the Christmas festival. Name it for 5 points.
    Answer: _SATURNALIA_
    2. Held on February 15, it began with a sacrifice of goats and a dog in the namesake cave on the Palatine where the she-wolf had suckled Romulus and Remus. Men dressed only in the skins of the slain goats then ran around the Palatine striking with goat thongs women wishing to conceive. Name it FTP.
    Answer: _LUPERCALIA_
    3. This movable feast was celebrated in February by the curiae. Involving a simple meal at the meeting place of each curia, it also featured a Feast of Fools where citizens who had forgotten the curia to which they belonged were able to take part.
    Answer: _FORNACALIA_ (or _Festival of Ovens_)

  2. Answer the following about a relativistic effect, for the stated number of points.
    1. This is the effect in which light rays are bent by the gravitational field of a massive object, such as a galaxy or black hole. Name it FTP.
    Answer: gravitational _LENS_ing (prompt on gravitational deflection)
    2. One result of gravitational lensing is the formation of multiple images of these objects with high redshifts, which are probably luminous active nuclei of distant galaxies. Identify these objects for 5 points.
    Answer: _QUASARS_ (or _quasistellar_ objects or _QSO_s)
    3. In this example of a gravitational lens effect, four images of a background object are formed. Originally used to describe the Huchra lens, whose four quasar images are arranged symmetrically about the image of a foreground galaxy, its name is now used for any similar example. For 15 points, identify this effect, named for a really famous physicist.
    Answer: _EINSTEIN CROSS_

  3. For the stated number of points, name these three movies which are, without a doubt, the coolest ever produced in the history of US cinema.
    1. Patrick Swayze stars as Dalton, a bouncer hired to clean up the Double Deuce Saloon. Costaring Sam Elliott as his ass-kicking mentor Wade Garrett, this film is also notable as the only film for which Jeff Healey has an acting credit. Name it for 5 points.
    Answer: _ROADHOUSE_
    2. Sure, "The Sting" won a few Oscars, but the coolest movie in the scam genre is this flick starring James Woods, Lou Gossett Jr., and Bruce Dern, in which an aging boxer and his con-man manager try to outscam a rich, gambling-addicted Georgian.
    Answer: _DIGGSTOWN_
    3. If someone asks you to name the coolest movie to take advantage of the post-L. A. Olympics gymnastics hysteria and you say "American Anthem," obviously you never saw this film in which Kurt Thomas travels to the third-world country of Parmistan to fight in the "Game." Should he win, he will be granted one wish, which, naturally, is to have Parmistan install a Star Wars missile site.
    Answer: _GYMKATA_

  4. FTP each, answer the following about a religious order.
    1. This Roman Catholic order was founded by St. Robert of Molesme in 1098. Also known as the White Monks, members eat and work in silence and abstain from meat, fish, and eggs.
    Answer: _CISTERCIANS_
    2. This founder of a monastery in Champagne is often credited with reinvigorating the Cistercian order. Often depicted with a beehive, he is best known for having Abelard condemned for heresy.
    Answer: St. _BERNARD_ of _CLAIRVAUX_
    3. This is the popular name for Cistercians of the Reformed Observance, an order founded by Armand de Rance in Normandy as a stricter version of the Cistercian order.
    Answer: _TRAPPIST_(s)

  5. FTP each, name the following related items associated with Naziism.
    1. This early supporter of Hitler played a vital role in fostering good relations between the Nazi Party and the Bavarian authorities until 1923. The organizer and leader of the SA, his plans to supplant the traditional German army led to his assassination.
    Answer: Ernst _ROHM_
    2. This politician became Minister of War in von Papen's government, and succeeded him as Chancellor. He was executed on trumped up charges of treason.
    Answer: Kurt von _SCHLEICHER_
    3. Rohm and von Schleicher were both killed during this "night," a purge which sought to crush the political power of the SA, and which resulted in the assassinations of over 100 of Hitler's political opponents on June 30 and July 1, 1934.
    Answer: Night of the _LONG KNIVES_

  6. FTP each, name these piano pieces by Schumann.
    1. This set of 21 pieces is subtitled "dainty scenes on four notes." Those four notes spell the letters of the hometown of a girl Schumann was in love with at the time, and the work shares its name with overtures by Dvorak and Glazunov.
    Answer: _CARNIVAL_
    2. This cycle of piano pieces refers to the eccentric musician in the writings of ETA Hoffmann.
    Answer: _KREISLERIANA_
    3. This set of variations, Schumann's opus 1, is dedicated to one of his female friends, and consists of variations on a theme composed of the notes in her name.
    Answer: _ABEGG_ variations

  7. FTP each, name these mythological figures slain by Theseus.
    1. This thief placed his victims on an iron bed, and fit them to the bed by either stretching or cutting them.
    Answer: _PROCRUSTES_ (or Damastes)
    2. This robber of Megara kicked his victims, who were washing his feet, into the sea, where they were eaten by a giant turtle.
    Answer: _SCIRON_
    3. This robber of Corinth attached his victims to two pine trees bent toward each other, until he was killed in the same manner by Theseus.
    Answer: _SINIS_

  8. FTP each, identify these characters from _The Grapes of Wrath_.
    1. This slow-witted second son of the Joads is last seen wandering off down a river when the pressures of the trip to California and his hunger become too much for him to bear.
    Answer: _NOAH_ Joad
    2. This character is Rose of Sharon's husband, who deserts the Joads after they arrive in California.
    Answer: _CONNIE_ Rivers
    3. This country preacher makes the trip with the Joads after giving up his ministry. He is killed trying to help the migrant workers strike.
    Answer: _JIM_ Casy

  9. Name these US Cabinet departments given their first secretaries FTP, or for 5 if you need more famous secretaries.
    1. 10 points--Thomas Ewing
    5 points--Harold Ickes, Albert Fall
    Answer: _INTERIOR_
    2. 10 points--Norman Colman
    5 points--Henry A. Wallace, Mike Espy
    Answer: _AGRICULTURE_
    3. 10 points--William Wilson
    5 points--Elizabeth Dole, Robert Reich
    Answer: _LABOR_

  10. For the stated number of points, name the following about problems surrounding the construction of a fusion reactor.
    1. To work, a self-sustaining fusion reactor must heat the reacting nuclides to the ignition temperature and contain the nuclides long enough for the fusion energy released to exceed the energy required to achieve the ignition temperature. To do so, the product of the density of the fusion-fuel particles and the containing time must, for 15 points, exceed this criterion.
    Answer: _LAWSON_'s criterion
    2. One way to achieve Lawson's criterion is by magnetic confinement, which utilizes this effect, the magnetic attraction between parallel conductors carrying currents flowing in the same direction. Name this effect FTP.
    Answer: _PINCH_ effect
    3. Using the pinch effect, a toroidal-shaped reactor called a Tokamak could maintain an enormous temperature by confining this matter using electromagnetic fields. This matter is highly ionized gas in which the number of free electrons is nearly equal to the number of positive ions. Name this type of matter for 5 points.
    Answer: _PLASMA_

  11. For 15 points each, name these island groups.
    1. These islands are a group of reefs in the South China Sea located midway between Vietnam and the Philippines. Including Itu Aba, Storm Island, and Pagasa Island, its strategic location had led Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Malaysia, and the Philippines to each claim possession.
    Answer: _SPRATLY_ Islands
    2. This is a low-lying chain of islands 3 to 20 miles off the coast of northern Europe, extending in an arc from the Netherlands to the Elbe, then turning north along the coast of Schleswig-Holstein and the Jutland Peninsula. Divided into West, East, and North portions, Erskine Childers wrote "The Riddle of the Sands" to bring attention to the possibility of a German invasion of Britain from these islands.
    Answer: _FRISIAN_ Islands

  12. FTP each, name the following about a literary movement.
    1. This literary movement which sought to purify poetry arose in Spanish America in the late 19th century, and counted among its adherents the poets Jose Silva, Leopoldo Lugomes, and Amado Nervo.
    Answer: _MODERNISMO_
    2. Some critics cite the publication of this poet's _Ismaelillo_ as the beginning of Modernismo. Name this Cuban author of _Versos libres_ and _Versos sencillos_.
    Answer: Jose _MARTI_
    3. One of the dominant figures of Modernismo was this Nicaraguan poet, whose Azul and Prosas profanas were seminal works of the movement.
    Answer: Ruben _DARIO_ (or Felix Ruben Garcia _Sarmiento_)

  13. The 1917 ballet _Parade_ was certainly interesting in its own right, being scored for typewriter, telegraph tape, airplane propellers, and sirens, but is even more significant for the who's-who list of avant-garde artists who collaborated on its creation. For 5 points each and a bonus 5 for all correct, name them from clues.
    1. This composer wrote, among other things, the symphonic drama _Socrate_.
    Answer: Erik _SATIE_
    2. This author, artist, and film director wrote the play _Orphee_ and the novels _Les Enfants Terribles_ and _La Machine Infernale_.
    Answer: Jean _COCTEAU_
    3. This artist painted _Les Demoiselles d'Avignon_ and _Three Women at the Fountain_.
    Answer: Pablo _PICASSO_
    4. This impresario founded the journal "The World of Art" and the Ballet Russes.
    Answer: Sergei _DIAGHILEV_
    5. Author of _Alcools_ and _Calligrammes_, this author wrote the program notes for _Parade_, marking possibly the first use of the term "surrealism."
    Answer: Guillaume _APOLLINAIRE_ (or Wilhelm _Apollinaris_ de Kostrowitzki)

  14. For the stated number of points, identify these figures associated with the German Enlightenment.
    1. This dramatist is credited with bringing about the birth of classical German comedy with the play _Minna von Barnhelm_. He is also known for the tragedy _Emilia Galotti_, the dramatic poem _Nathan the Wise_ and the treatise _The Education of the Human Race_. Name him FTP.
    Answer: Gotthold Ephraim _LESSING_
    2. Lessing's character Nathan the Wise was based upon this German philosopher and author of _Philosophical Speeches_, _Letters on Feeling_, and _Morning Hours_. For 5 points, name this "German Socrates", the grandfather of a famous composer.
    Answer: _M_oses _MENDELSSOHN_
    3. This writer and bookseller first came to prominence by defending the works of John Milton against the grammarian Johann Gottsched. For 15 points, name this writer remembered for his participation in the so-called "Correspondence About Tragedy" with Lessing and Mendelssohn, and his satire _The Joys of Young Werther_.
    Answer: Friedrich _NICOLAI_

  15. FTP each, name these parts of the inner-ear concerned with balance and movement.
    1. This is the chamber from which the cochlea arises in mammals, and bears patches of sensory epithelium necessary for proper balance.
    Answer: _SACCULUS_ (or _saccule_)
    2. The semicircular canals arise from this chamber concerned with detecting changes in the direction and speed of movement.
    Answer: _UTRICULUS_ (or _utricle_)
    3. This patch of sensory hair cells in the utriculus and sacculus is embedded in an otoloth containing particles of calcium carbonate. Movement of the particles bends the hairs and triggers nerve impulses, giving the brain information about balance and movement.
    Answer: _MACULA_

  16. Yes, there is more than one important Behaviorist. FTP each, name these psychologists who are not John B. Watson.
    1. Author of _Science and Human Behavior_, _The Shaping of a Behaviorist_, and _Walden Two_, this psychologist is known for his system of operant conditioning, which sought to establish the laws of behavior.
    Answer: Burrhus F. _SKINNER_
    2. This author of _Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence_ is famous for a series of experiments on cerebral functioning conducted while at the University of Chicago, and for his principles of mass action and equipotentiality.
    Answer: Karl S. _LASHLEY_
    3. This psychologist is best known for developing purposive behaviorism, which treats psychological data from a molar behaviorist point of view. He is the author of _Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men_ and _Drives Toward War_.
    Answer: Edward _TOLMAN_

  17. 30-20-10 Name the composer.
    30) Among his works are _The Peacock Variations_ and the _Dances of Galanta_, the latter of which refers to the town in which he spent seven years of his youth.
    20) His namesake method of music instruction utilizes the human voice to impart musical knowledge. His most famous work is a nationalist opera based on the superstition that if a statement is followed by a sneeze by one of the hearers, then the statement must by true. Its sections include "Viennese musical clock" and "The battle and defeat of Napoleon."
    10) A Hungarian nationalist composer and friend of Bartok, he is best known for _Hary Janos_.
    Answer: Zoltan _KODALY_

  18. FTP each, given the description name these poems by Matthew Arnold.
    1. This lyric poem, filled with vivid descriptions of the countryside around Oxford, tells of a student who gives up his academic life to wander the forests in search of wisdom.
    Answer: The _SCHOLAR GIPSY_
    2. This poem portrays a Greek philosopher who can no longer feel joy and who considers himself useless, and consequently plans to commit suicide by leaping into a crater.
    3. Considered one of Arnold's finest poems, this 24 stanza poem eulogizes his friend, the poet Arthur Hugh Clough, recalling the Oxford countryside the two explored as students.
    Answer: _THYRSIS_

  19. FTP each, name these characters from Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida.
    1. Cressida is a Trojan woman whose father has defected to the Greeks. She pledges her love to Troilus but, after her father demands Cressida's presence in the Greek camp, she switches her affections to this Greek soldier who is sent to escort her.
    Answer: _DIOMEDES_
    2. This deformed Greek's main role is to comment wryly on the actions of the other characters.
    Answer: _THERSITES_
    3. This character is the bawdy go-between for Troilus and Cressida, and enjoys watching the degrading behavior of the characters in the play.
    Answer: _PANDARUS_

  20. For 15 points each, name these important 19th century chemists.
    1. Above the entrance to this chemist's laboratory was a notice reading "God has ordered all his creation by Weight and Measure." Armed with this conviction, he discovered choral and chloroform, showed that plants absorb minerals from the soil, is considered the founder of agricultural chemistry, and established the first practical chemistry teaching lab at Gissen, Germany.
    Answer: Baron Justsu von _LIEBIG_
    2. This chemist discovered quinones and calcium carbide, and in 1828 was the first person to synthesize an organic compound from an inorganic compound. With Liebig, he introduced the theory of compound radicals.
    Answer: Friedrich _WOHLER_

  21. 30-20-10 Name the mathematician.
    30) This mathematician originated the incorrectly attributed Sterling's formula, and used the formula to derive the normal frequency curve as an approximation of the binomial law. A French Huguenot who was arrested at age 18 upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, he expanded his paper "De mensura sortis" into _The Doctrine of Chances_.
    20) The first to use the probability integral in which the integrand is the exponential of a negative quadratic, he is also known as the author of 1730's "Analytical Miscellany".
    10) His formula, quantity cosine x plus i sine x quantity closed to the nth power equals cosine nx plus i sine nx, revolutionized the study of analytical trigonometry.
    Answer: Abraham de _MOIVRE_

  22. FTP each, name these American artists from works.
    1. "The Oxbow," "In the Catskills"
    Answer: Thomas _COLE_
    2. "Kindred Spirits"
    Answer: Asher B. _DURAND_
    3. "Niagara," "Heart of the Andes"
    Answer: Frederick _CHURCH_

  23. For the stated number of points, name these famous "Wobblies".
    1. After this former head of the Western Federation of Miners was acquitted of the bombing murder of an ex-governor of Idaho, his faction dominated the IWW. His ardent militancy later got him kicked off the executive board of the Socialist Party, and in 1917 he was convicted of sedition for his opposition to WWI. Name him for 5 points.
    Answer: William "Big Bill" _HAYWOOD_
    2. A founder of the IWW, this Irish-born labor activist lost her family in an epidemic in 1867 and thereafter devoted herself to the cause of labor. Name this "mother" FTP.
    Answer: Mary Harris "Mother" _JONES_
    3. This IWW leader gained fame for his songs popularizing the union cause. In 1914 he was convicted of murdering a Salt Lake City shopkeeper. Despite contradictory evidence, lack of motive, and appeals on his behalf by Woodrow Wilson and the Swedish government, he was executed in 1915.
    Answer: Joe _HILL_

  24. Name these mountain chains from mountains they contain FTP, or for 5 points if you need the location.
    1. 10 points--Mount Toubkal, Mount Chelia, Great Kabylie
    5 points--Found in northwestern Africa, they run southeast to northwest through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.
    Answer: _ATLAS_ Mountains
    2. 10 points--Mount Tebulosmta, Mount Dombay-Ulgen, Mount Aragats, Mount Elbrus
    5 points--Lying between the Black and Azov Seas and the Caspian Sea, they are occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and
    Answer: _CAUCASUS_ (or _Kavkaz_ Mountains)
    3. 10 points--Mount Narodnaya, Mount Sredny Baseg
    5 points--Lying in west-central Russia, they form the major physiographic boundary between Europe and Asia.
    Answer: _URAL_ Mountains (or _Uralsky Khrebet_)

  25. Name these important works of ancient and medieval philosophy F15P from a description, or FTP if you need the name of the author.
    1. 15 points--This circa 1190 work was intended for those intellectuals who were in a state of mental confusion because they believed
    Greek sciences contradicted religious faith. In it, the author presents Aristotelian philosophy in such a deliberately
    jumbled and confused manner that only the truly gifted could make sense of it, insuring that a corrupted, watered-down
    version could not circulate among the uneducated masses.
    10 points--Moses Maimonides
    Answer: _GUIDE_ to (or for) the _PERPLEXED_ (or _Dalalat al-Harin_ or _Moreh Nevukhim_)
    2. 15 points--This circa 524 work, written while the author was in prison, is a dialogue between the author and a beautiful woman
    representing Philosophy. The woman answers the contradictions surrounding free will, the existence of evil, and God's
    10 points--Boethius
    Answer: The _CONSOLATION OF PHILOSOPHY_ (or _De consolatione philosophiae_)