Tossups by Penn State (of all people)

  1. "Lawful" means "compatible with the will of a judge having jurisdiction." "Belledonna" is "in Italian a beautiful lady; in English a deadly poison. A striking example of the essential identity of the two tongues." The book, which appeared in parts in a weekly paper from 1881 to 1906, is a study in cynicism, addressed to "enlightened souls who prefer sense to sentiment, wit to humor and clean English to slang." For 10 points, name this book which defines others of its kind as "Malevolent literary devices for cramping the growth of a language," written by Ambrose Bierce.

    Answer: The _Devil's Dictionary_

  2. Her name means "the most noble of women" and after the death of her husband in the mid-16th century BC, she replaced him as Pharaoh, becoming the first woman to rule over Egypt. For 10 points, name this queen who oversaw the building of the Temple of Karnak, and whose reign was usurped by her son, Thutmose III.

    Answer: _Hatshepsut_

  3. The composer himself described the piece as "a kaleidoscope of fairy tale images and designs of Islamic character." The first movement, entitled "The Sea and Sinbad's Ship" sets the stage with the powerful motif that is repeated in the thunderous final movement, "The Festival at Baghdad." For 10 points, name this 1888 symphonic suite by Rimsky-Korsakov, based on the famous narrator of the 1,001 Arabian Nights.

    Answer: _Scheherazade_

  4. A set S is this if there exists either a surjective mapping from the natural numbers to S or an injective mapping from S to the natural numbers. The power set P of any infinite set is not, nor are the real numbers, however the integers and rational numbers are. For 10 points, give this term which describes any finite set and any infinite set whose elements can be discretely numbered.

    Answer: _countable_, or _denumerable_

  5. He began to receive attention as a youth player from his home in Middletown, Pennsylvania. His dynamic scoring prowess led him to the University of Virginia, where he made the all-ACC team by his sophomore year, as well as being a finalist for the National Player of the Year Award. In 1997 he won that too, even if he couldn't lead Virginia all the way to another NCAA soccer title. His old coach, Bruce Arena, quickly selected him as a Project 40 player after he signed with MLS last December. For 10 points, identify #10 when he played for the Cavaliers and #14 as he presently does for DC United, the 1998 MLS Rookie of the Year.

    Answer: Ben _Olsen_

  6. Its existence was rendered unnecessary when general relativity introduced a term into Newton's theory of gravity dependent on the distance to the fourth, which when added to the standard one over r-squared potential explained the 43 arcsecond-per-century perihelion shift of Mercury. Its life therefore parallels Pluto's -- searched for because of a problem in Newtonian gravity that eventually was explained away. The difference is, of course, that this planet doesn't exist. For 10 points, name this fictitious planet inside Mercury's orbit, named after the Roman god of the forge.

    Answer: _Vulcan _

  7. This nation has five airports, nine provinces, and a surprisingly low 1.46% population growth rate. Its main ethnic groups include Fang, Bandzabi, and Pygmies. Longtime leader El Hadj Omar Bongo was reelected in 1993 in his nation's first multipary elections. For 10 points, name this stable African country, a former French colony, whose three largest cities are Franceville, Port-Gentil, and its capital of Libreville.

    Answer: _Gabon_

  8. He got into a public relations fiasco when he gave the finger to a large group of protestors from his train car in Calgary. He earned his law degree from the University of Montreal in 1943 and became a law professor there before being elected to parliament in 1965. His greatest achievement may be the repatriation of the Canadian constitution in 1982. For 10 points, name this flamboyant prime minister of Canada from 1968-1979 and 1980-1983.

    Answer: Pierre Elliot _Trudeau_

  9. He is known as a great poet, though he prefers poverty to accepting patronage. As captain of the Cadets of Gascoyne he is one of the best swordsmen in France, though his skill is used most often against those who offend him. He also has a brilliant wit, though he uses it to help his rival win the girl he loves. For ten points, name this Edmond Rostand title character who combines all three in extemporizing a ballad as he duels a man who has dared to say, "Your nose is rather large."

    Answer: _Cyrano de Bergerac_

  10. To avoid excessive disk accesses in linked allocation file systems, the first few blocks of the disk are used to store a reference containing an entry for each disk block, indexed by block number. The starting block of a file is indicated, and each entry shows the next block where the file is stored. For 10 points, name this table, abbreviated FAT.

    Answer: _File Allocation_ Table (prompt on FAT on early buzz)

  11. All of the characters volunteered for the war and all survive the madness until the last chapter. Berger is killed by English artillery while trying to rescue a messenger dog. Katczinsky falls to an American airman. Muller is shot by a French infantryman. When the narrator, Paul Baumer, is killed in October of 1918, it is on a day so uneventful that the army report confined itself to a single sentence, the book's title. For 10 points, name this book by Erich Maria Remarque.

    Answer: _All Quiet on the Western Front_ or _Im Western Nichts Neues_

  12. Discovered in 190 A.D. in China, it was not until 1710 that this invention was discovered in Europe. Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Bottger perfected a method in Meissen, Germany, in which the mixture of kaolin and pentuntse created the hard-paste necessary for this material. It wasn't until the mid-18th Century that England and France found a way to produce this material, developing a soft-paste combination of white clay and glass or bone ash. For 10 points, name this high-fired clay material, made into dinnerware, sculptures, and false teeth.

    Answer: _porcelain_

  13. Named for the woolen robes they wear, practitioners wish to personally experience Tauhid, a total unity with God. They do not distance themselves from the Shariat, but despite this view, some countries, notably Saudi Arabia, still condemn, for 10 points, what mystical Islamic sect?

    Answer: _Sufism_ or _Sufis_

  14. By the end of this battle from Jun 18-20, 1944, the Japanese fleet had lost almost all of its remaining carrier force. While 750 or more planes were shot down in this Marianas Turkey Shoot, it was American submarines that sank the Taiho and the Shokaku, leading to the inevitable demise of the Japanese fleet 5 months later during the battle of Leyte Gulf. For 10 points, identify this massive battle named for the body of water north of the Caroline Islands and east of the Phillipines.

    Answer: Battle of _Philippine Sea_

  15. They most likely make up only about 1% of the Universe's total mass, though supernovae and the like emit most of their energy by creating them. Recently, in Japan, it was shown that the Sun emits less of one flavor than another, which may solve a long standing problem in astrophysics, and finally places a lower limit on their mass. For 10 points, name these particles which interact with virtually nothing, and whose name comes from Italian meaning "little neutral one."

    Answer: _Neutrinos_

  16. After he was given consular power in Spain, he scored major victories at Saguntum, Baecula, and Illipa in 217 BC. Fifteen years later, he would team up with the cavalry of Massinissa to fight his greatest battle. For 10 points, name this Roman commander, the hero of the 2nd Punic War who defeated Hannibal at Zama in 202 BC.

    Answer: _Scipio Africanus_ (prompt on just "Scipio")

  17. He was born in 1759 and wrote prolifically despite only living to thirty-seven. Many of his poems are actually lyrics, set to the tunes of drinking songs and folk tunes like "Robin Adair" and "Gordon's Strathspey." The poems display a wide variety in style and language. "Man was Made to Mourn: a Dirge" uses normal English such as "Man's inhumanity to man / Makes countless thousands mourn." Volumes of his poetry must often include a glossary, however, as most of his better-know works are in nearly unintelligible dialect. For 10 points, name the poet who wrote lines like "Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled" and "Wee, sleakit, cow'rin, tim'rous beastie."

    Answer: Robert _Burns_

  18. In 1940 this lawyer won his first Supreme Court case, Chambers v. Florida, to be followed by 39 others. With his mentor, Charles Houston, he had won his first civil rights case in 1935: Murray v. Pearson. Appointed to the United States Court of Appeals in 1961, his confirmation was held up for months by southern senators. For ten points, name this first African-American Justice of the US Supreme Court.

    Answer: Thurgood _Marshall_

  19. Born into a prominent New York family in 1862, she married a wealthy Bostonian at the age of 23. She published her first short story Mrs. Manstey's View, in 1891, and others of her short stories include The Angel at the Grave, The Pelican, and The Muses' Tragedy. For 10 points, name this author, who is more well known for her novels, such as The House of Mirth, Ethan Frome, and The Age of Innocence.

    Answer: Edith _Wharton_

  20. This apocryphal story takes place over two fateful months in 587 B.C., in the small town of Bethulia, which is under attack by the Assyrians. The widow of Manasseh casts off her widow's sackcloth and attracts the attention of an Assyrian general, who invites her to eat with him. For 10 points, name this title character, who saves her town by beheading the general, Holofernos.

    Answer: _Judith_

  21. The Josephson Effect is the flow of electric current in the form of these between two superconducting materials. They are electrons that, when correctly placed among positive ions, no longer repel one another but instead attract one another and move in the same direction, eliminating all resistance to the flow of electricity in their medium. For ten points, identify these pairs of electrons, named for the American scientist who discovered them and co-founded BCS theory.

    Answer: _Cooper_ pairs (Prompt on _electrons_ on an early buzz)

  22. His best friend was his pet poodle who biographers now think may have been a really ugly cat. Born in 1788, this philosopher left home when his mother, a novelist, pushed him down a flight of stairs. He taught at Jena where he often spoke to empty classrooms because, out of spite, he always scheduled his lectures to conflict with those of his more popular rival, G. F. Hegel. For ten points, name this German philosopher who wrote _The World as Will and Idea_.

    Answer: Arthur _Schopenhauer_

  23. It depicts the story from Matthew 17:24-27. In the center Christ instructs Peter to catch a fish. It uses the recently discovered linear perspective and chiaroscuro, with the primary light source being a window in the Brancacci chapel in the Church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence, where this fresco resides. For ten points, name this masterwork by Masaccio, adjacent to the Expulsion of Adam and Eve.

    Answer: _The Tribute Money_

  24. It begins in eukaryotes when the 50S ribosomal subunit binds to a mRNA molecule. Soon, promoters in the base pairing allow for the 30S ribosomal section to combine. Specific sequences are matched with amino acids brought to the ribosome by tRNA molecules, and then the growing molecule is added by the action of GTP and peptidyl transferase. Using the wobble concept, the mRNA strand is elongated until a stop codon is reached, at which point the process halts. For 10 points, these events describe what biologic process, which in prokaryotes occurs in the nucleus along with transcription, even if the genetic code is the only language involved?

    Answer: _Translation_