Tossups by Chicago B and Vanderbilt

1. It first rose to prominence under Andrew Jackson, who had little regard for George Washington's suggestion that appointments be made to "fit the job." It ballooned as a tool of political machines like the Prendergasts in Kansas City and Tammany Hall in New York. For ten points, name this process of appointing unqualified political allies to governmental posts which was outlawed by the 1883 Pendleton Act.

Answer: the spoils system

2. Fatal when inhaled, its properties of being able to dissolve rubber and to be dispersed in a fluid aerosol form allow it to circumvent the standard gas mask. It is 2-chloroethyl sulfide, its American abbreviation is HS, and it is known to the French as Yprite (eep-REET) and to the Germans as Yellow Cross. For ten points, name this substance that causes nosebleed, blisters, and eye irritation, a chemical weapon used by both sides during World War One.

Answer: Mustard Gas

3. He left college in 1900 and began to travel all over the United States, reciting poetry in exchange for food and money. This lifestyle is reflected in the title of his first published volume of poetry, Rhymes To Be Traded for Bread. Much of his poetry carries a driving, rhythmic beat when it is read aloud. For ten points, who is this poet of "General William Booth Enters into Heaven" and "The Congo"?

Answer: Vachel Lindsay

4. Born on Oct. 13, 1961, he was raised in Chilmark, Massachusetts. When he was 12, his sister was kidnapped, an experience that would affect him for the rest of his life. After studying psychology at Oxford, he joined the FBI. For ten points, who is this special agent who is known by his colleagues as "Spooky"?

Answer: Fox Mulder

5. Its current President in exile is Gerhard von Hacht. Located on the Vistula River, it was ruled alternately by Prussia and Poland until Napoleon made it a free city in 1807. The partitions of Poland saw it incorporated into Prussia and later into the German Empire. For ten points, name this Baltic port which was again declared a free state in 1919 and the status of which was the immediate cause of Hitler's 1939 invasion of Poland.

Answer: Gdansk (Grudgingly accept Danzig)

5. The copper panel from the temple of Ninkhursag, near Ur, displays Imdugud, a god with the body of an eagle and the head of this animal. A large stone statue of the animal trampling a human stands in the ruins of Babylon, too heavy to be moved away by archaeologists. Vishnu's avatar Narasimha appears in this shape, as does the head of the Egyptian Nefertum and Sekhmet. For ten points, name the creature captured by Gilgamesh in Uruk and by Hercules in Nemea.

Answer: lion

6. Until the postulation of the tachyon, a mathematically derived quirk in Einstein's theory of special relativity, there was no need for this class of particle. Also known as a bradyon, it is effectively all particles other than tachyons - that is, all particles with a real positive mass and a speed less than "c" in all inertial frames. For ten points, give the general term for such a slow particle.

Answer: tardon or tardyon (accept early: bradyon)

7. A 1988 performance of this opera by the Opera North required audiences to use scratch-and-sniff cards to drive home the conceit of a play-within-a-play. The actions of the opera center on a fairy tale concerning such conspirators as Fata Morgana, Clarissa, and Prime Minister Leandro, who attempt to prevent the cure of the melancholy son of the King of Clubs. For ten points, name this strange, Carlo Gozzi-inspired work by Sergi Prokofiev, in which the Prince's melancholy is replaced with an overwhelming desire to find fruit.

Answer: The Love for Three Oranges (Lyubov'k tryom apel'sinam)

8. At the peak of the conflict, Mughal Emperor Bhadur Shah II was restored to power after a group of soldiers had overthrown the English garrison in Delhi. This was achieved after a march instigated by the jailing of a group of soldiers who refused to fire their Winchester rifles. For ten points, identify this uprising named for a group of troops in the service of the East India Company who, on May 10, 1857, came to believe that biting off the end of their lubricated cartridges was a sacrilege.

Answer: Sepoy Rebellion/Mutiny

9. "All religious organizations exist by selling themselves to the rich," says Andrew Undershaft. After a long debate about morality and power, Adolphus Cusins adopts Undershaft's name as a part of a prenuptial agreement concerning the title character, and becomes the commander of the family munitions business. The title character quits her charitable religious group after learning that they accept donations from brewers and munitions makers. For ten points, name this George Bernard Shaw play about the Salvation Army.

Answer: Major Barbara

10. Godwin, Earl of Wessex, deposed the Norman archbishop of Canterbury in favor of a Saxon, Stigand. Stigand's support of an anti-pope prompted this man, then a papal advisor to Alexander II, to sanction William the Conqueror's invasion of England. However, he is better known for the political conflicts that occurred in his tenure as pope. For ten points, name the man, born Hildebrand, who at Canossa temporarily reconciled with Henry IV.

Answer: Saint (Pope) Gregory VII

11. He conducted the only nude interview in the history of the Presidency when Anne Royall, disappointed that the White House would not grant an interview, sat on the President's clothes and refused to move until he answered her questions. Glowering from chin-deep water, he obliged. For ten points, name the man elected by the votes of "The Last Patroon," General Stephen Van Rensselaer, and House Speaker Henry Clay to be our sixth president.

Answer: John Quincy Adams

12. It starts with a woman's funeral, which is appropriate, since the title object focuses on using the living dead to help prevent mankind from developing a bomb that will detonate sunlight. It earned Golden Turkey awards for Worst Picture, and Worst Director of All Time, Ed Wood Jr. For ten points, name this 1959 movie starring Tor Johnson, Vampira, and Bela Lugosi.

Answer: Plan 9 from Outer Space

13. Black Comedy deals with the confusion caused by a power outage, while the conquest of the Incan empire is related in The Royal Hunt of the Sun. Five Finger Exercise deals with a troubled music tutor, and a young boy's violent fantasies are the subject of Equus. For ten points, all of these works are plays by what author best known for Amadeus?

Answer: Peter Shaffer

14. A minor character in The Odyssey, this man, actually a front for the goddess Athena, was one of the crafty warrior's most steadfast companions. The tutor of Telemachus, he provided the stability and caring that the young child needed to mature into the warrior who helped Odysseus expel Penelope's suitors. For ten points, identify this man, whose name has become synonymous with a trusted teacher or counselor.

Answer: Mentor

15. Usually poor in feldspar and quartz, this type of stone is more rich in talc, muscovite, chlorite, biotite, and graphite. Most are a green-grey color and all are formed under stresses that are not equal in all directions as evidenced by well-developed folding and the orientation of platy materials in parallels. For ten points, name this type unfoliated of rock named for its tendency to split into layers.

Answer: Schist

16. The Prophet Mohammed, under pressure from the most prominent traders in Mecca, was convinced to add to his revelation a sura granting minimum acceptance of the pagan goddesses whose shrines were located in and around the Qabba. He later rescinded this sura, declaring it a blasphemy made necessary by political events. For ten points, name these lines expunged from the Qu'ran which lent their name to a controversial novel by Salman Rushdie.

Answer: The Satanic Verses

17. A native of Parry Sound, Ontario, he played with the minor league Oshawa Generals before entering the NHL in 1966. He was judged the top rookie in his first season, the best defenseman in 8 seasons, and in 1969-70 was the league's top scorer, most valuable player and most valuable player in the playoffs. For ten points, name this defenseman, a member of the Stanley Cup winning Bruins team.

Answer: Robert Gordon ("Bobby") Orr

18. You are the doctor, and a patient has come to you with a persistent cough. They also feel tired and have lost their appetite. The lab tests that you run indicate the presence of Myobacterium. The cough in your patient is worsening, and they have even begun to cough up blood. For ten points, which disease should you diagnose, a big killer in past centuries and remains so in many Third World countries?

Answer: tuberculosis or TB or consumption

19. In August he was honored at the White House in celebration of his 90th birthday and he is a former presidential ambassador of goodwill. Born in Alabama, he grew up in Kenosha, Wisconsin, playing the drums. He was given the chance to play with his idol, Louis Armstrong, and, on their record Memories of You, he became the first recorded jazz vibraphonist. For ten points, name this man who went on to expand the Benny Goodman Trio to a quartet and whose Flying Home established him as the King of the vibraphone.

Answer: Lionel Hampton

20. Originally written in the 1950s as a pseudo-sequel to an earlier work, it was not published until 1985. It tells the story of William Lee's withdrawal from heroin addiction, his homosexual relationship with Eugene Allerton, and their trip to Ecuador to score a payload of yage. For ten points, name this odd-sounding William S. Burroughs novel, the similarly titled follow-up to Junky.

Answer: Queer

21. The central lawyer for the defendant, William Corrigan, was replaced by F. Lee Bailey during the appeal process. Under the eyes of the Welsh Judge Edward Blythin, the defense revealed such evidence of police incompetence as losing a cigarette found in the bathroom. Nonetheless, the jury found the defendant guilty of second degree murder and Judge Blythin sentenced him to life in prison. For ten points, identify this 1954 case, overturned by the Supreme Court in 1965, which inspired The Fugitive.

Answer: Ohio v. Sheppard (accept: Sheppard v. Ohio)

22. Upon his coronation in 1930, he took his name meaning "Power of the Trinity". By tradition he was a descendant of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, and ruled nearly continuously until 1974, with a hiatus only from 1935 to the end of World War II. For ten points, name this man, born Ras Tafari, who was the last ruling Emperor of Ethiopia.

Answer: Haile Selassie I

23. This theory was the basis for a series of predictions by Willem de Sitter and Alexander A. Friedmann concerning the expansion of the universe, as well as Arthur Eddington's theories concerning the breakup of objects due to excessive photon pressure. Its cornerstone is the field equation G = 8 pi T, where "G" is the gravitational tensor and "T" is the metric tensor. For ten points, name this far-ranging theory developed in 1915 by Albert Einstein.

Answer: general theory of relativity

24. The United Nations agreed to a trusteeship of the Bonin and Ryukyu Island chains, while all claims to the Pescadores, the Kuriles, Sakhalin, and Formosa were completely renounced by Japan. It provided for the complete withdrawal of occupation forces within 90 days of the ratification of every signatory of the treaty. For ten points, name the agreement signed by 49 nations, but not the USSR, in the western United States.

Answer: San Francisco Peace Treaty (prompt on: Japanese Peace Treaty)

25. Born in 1887, this architect's innovations ran counter to the functionalist trends of the day. A great fan of poured concrete, he used it to form rounded, organic buildings with an expressionist flair. He created many department stores and movie theaters in addition to the De La Warr Pavilion, a glass-enclosed staircase. For ten points, name the German architect best known his Klingon-esque Einstein Observatory in Potsdam.

Answer: Erich Mendelshon