Quesadilla I 1998
Bonuses by Caltech Also-Rans (Chris Nolte, Albert Chiu, and Jay Catherwood)

[Science: minerals]

Identify the mineral from the description, for 10 points each.

A. This transparent calcium phosphate (sometimes containing fluorine, chlorine, hydroxyl or carbonate groups) is a major component of vertebrate teeth but is not good to eat.

Answer: apatite

B. A form of mica, this potassium aluminum silicate has ``star'' and ``fuchsite'' varieties and was used in Russia for window panes.

Answer: muscovite

C. This widespread calcium carbonate mineral is harder and more dense than calcite. It is found in shells and pearls throughout the world, not just in Spain.

Answer: aragonite

[Social science: feminist studies]

Identify the authors of these recent feminist works, for 5 points each and a 5 point bonus for all correct.

A. The Beauty Myth (1982) Naomi Wolf
B. Against Our Will (1986) Susan Brownmiller
C. Intercourse (1988) Andrea Dworkin
D. Toward a Feminist Theory of the State (1989) Catherine MacKinnon
E. Backlash (1991) Susan Faludi

[History: Europe/Africa]

Answer these questions about the conflict between Italy and Ethiopia, for 10 points each.

A. A dispute over this 1889 treaty, in which Italy was granted territory in northern Ethiopia, led to conflict when Italy proclaimed the entire country of Ethiopia an Italian protectorate.

Answer: Treaty of Uccialli (or Wichale)

B. After Menelik II repudiated the Treaty of Uccialli, the Italians invaded. After a few minor victories, the Italians were humiliatingly routed at this 1896 battle and forced to recognize Ethiopian independence.

Answer: Battle of Adowa (or Adwa)

C. This general led the Italian forces when they again invaded Ethiopia in 1935, and he briefly ruled the country as viceroy. Succeeding Mussollini as prime minister in July 1943, he negotiated the armistice with the Allies two months later.

Answer: Pietro Badoglio

[Literature: 19th c. French]

Answer these questions about Madame Bovary for the stated number of points each.

A. Madame Bovary has two lovers over the course of the novel. One is a shy law clerk and one is a wealthy landowner. Name them both for 10 points each.

Answer: Leon Dupuis and Rodolphe Boulanger

B. You don't need to read the book to know that Madame Bovary must come to a sordid demise. For a final 10 points, how does Madame Bovary die?

Answer: she poisons herself with arsenic
(accept equivalents, but prompt on suicide)

[Fine arts: painting]

Here's a question that will test your knowledge of history--art history that is. Given a painting, name the artist for five points each.

A. The 3rd of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid

Answer: Francisco Goya

B. Washington Crossing the Delaware

Answer: Emanuel Leutze

C. Liberty Leading the People (La Libert guidant le peuple)

Answer: Eugene Delacroix

For the final fifteen points, all or nothing, arrange the paintings according to the year in which they were painted from earliest to latest.

The 3rd of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid 1814
Liberty Leading the People (La Libert guidant le peuple) 1830
Washington Crossing the Delaware 1851

[Science: astronomy]

Identify the astronomically related space craft from descriptions, for 15 points each:

A. It was launched February 17, 1996 aboard a Delta-II rocket and was designed by Johns Hopkins University for NASA as one of the first low-cost spacecraft through the Discovery Program. In July, 1997, it passed by Mathilde on its way to a rendezvous with Eros, one of the largest of the study objects.

Answer: NEAR (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous)

B. This orbiter was launched in November, 1989, carrying three instruments: a Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), a Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), and a Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). These instruments compared the spectrum of the microwave background to a pure blackbody spectrum and measured the cosmic microwave background to a precision of 0.005%, lending much support to the Big Bang theory.

Answer: COBE (Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer)

[History: 20th c. Hungary]

Name these Hungarian leaders of the twentieth century, none of whom are Imre Nagy, for 10 points each.

A. A friend of Lenin's, he used Soviet funds to install a short-lived Communist state in Hungary in 1919.

Answer: Bela Kun

B. Under his rule Hungary became a Soviet satellite immediately after World War II.

Answer: Matyas Rakosi

C. In 1990, his Hungarian Democratic Forum soundly defeated the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party in Hungary's first free elections since World War II.

Answer: Joszef Antall

[Literature: American]

Identify these owners of Uncle Tom from Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin for 10 points each.

A. This Kentucky gentleman, Tom's original master, is forced to sell him to pay off a debt to a slave trader, who takes Tom south.

Answer: Mr. Shelby

B. Uncle Tom is next sold to a New Orleans gentleman who employs Tom as a driver. This owner is so impressed by Tom that he decides to set him free, but is killed before getting a chance to do so.

Answer: Augustine St. Clare

C. Upon St. Clare's death, Tom is finally sold as a field hand to this brutish master, who eventually whips and beats him to death.

Answer: Simon Legree

[Pop culture: recent film]

Recognizing a huge potential market, Hollywood film studios are beginning to try to appeal to the Hispanic community. Identify these Latina actresses for 10 points each.

A. She played the title role in the biopic ``Selena'' and stars opposite George Cloony in the 1998 movie ``Out of Sight.''

Answer: Jennifer Lopez

B. This Welsh-born actress stars as Elena Montero in the 1998 film ``The Mask of Zorro,'' her first major Hollywood role.

Answer: Catherine Zeta-Jones (prompt on partial name)

C. She played the love interest in John Sayles' 1996 film ``Lone Star,'' and will appear with Jackie Chan in ``Rush Hour,'' to be released later in 1998.

Answer: Elizabeth Peña

[Fine arts: comic opera]

Name the following Gilbert and Sullivan operas from brief descriptions for ten points each.

A. One of the two newly married title characters is the King of Barataria, but since no one knows which one, they leave their wives to rule Barataria jointly.

Answer: The Gondoliers, or The King of Barataria

B. Like all the other village lads, Robin Oakapple loves Rose Maybud, but upon receiving the title of Baronet of the title castle, he must commit one major crime a day or die in agony.

Answer: Ruddigore, or The Witch's Curse

C. Most of the music for this 1871 opera has been lost. In it, the Gods are old and tired of ruling Olympus and leave for vacation while a group of travelling actors take their place.

Answer: Thespis or The Gods Grown Old

[Philosophy: 19th century]

Identify the authors of these philosophical tracts, for 5 points each plus a 5 point bonus for all correct.

A. Logical Investigations Edmund Husserl
B. Being and Time Martin Heidegger
C. Being and Nothingness Jean-Paul Sartre
D. Phenomenology of Mind Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
E. Phenomenology of Spirit Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

[Current events: Nigerian politics]

Indonesia isn't the only country that has had a long-entrenched military ruler fall from power in 1998. For 10 points each, answer these questions about the recent political developments in Nigeria.

A. This general seized power in a 1993 coup and ruled Nigeria ruthlessly until unexpectedly dying in his sleep in June.

Answer: Sani Abacha

B. He was jailed for treason in 1994 after apparently winning Nigeria's presidential election. His suspicious death in captivity days before his expected release sparked rioting throughout the country, though a team of international doctors has concluded he died of natural causes.

Answer: Moshood Abiola

C. This former chief of defense staff had never held high political office before coming to power upon Abacha's death.

Answer: Abdulsalaam Abubakar

[Sports: soccer] The goalkeeper in soccer can be either the hero or the goat. Identify these goalkeepers from the 1998 World Cup, for 10 points each.

A. Though considered one of the best in the world, this Spanish goalkeeper took the blame when he gave up two late goals to give Nigeria the 3-2 victory. As a result, Spain failed to advance out of the first round.

Answer: Andoni Zubizaretta

B. Though he did not score a much-anticipated first World Cup goal by a keeper, this flamboyant goalie for Paraguay led his team into the Round of 16, finally losing to France on Laurent Blanc's ``golden goal'' minutes before the end of the second overtime period.

Answer: Jose Luis Chilavert

C. Though often criticized as the weak link on Brazil's all-star team, he came up with two huge saves in the penalty kick shootout against the Netherlands in the semifinals, and was the hero in 1994 when Brazil won the final against Italy in a shootout.

Answer: Taffarel

[History: European aristocracy]

How well do you know the aristocracy of Europe? Identify these aristocratic groups for 10 points each.

A. They were the nobles of Russia, against whom the Czars traditionally struggled for power. They were hunted down by the secret police of Ivan the Terrible and tortured by Peter the Great.

Answer: boyars

B. They were the conservative militaristic nobles of early modern Germany, exemplified by Bismarck, who shared their names with a group of Luftwaffe airplanes.

Answer: junkers

C. All the aristocracy of Poland, including the king, belonged to this single non-hierarchical rank of knights.

Answer: szlachta

[Geography: Iberian rivers]

Identify these rivers of the Iberian peninsula for 10 points each.

A. Rising in eastern Spain 150 km from the Mediterranean coast, it flows over 1000 km west/southwest across Spain and Portugal before emptying into the Atlantic near Lisbon.

Answer: Tagus or Tajo or Tejo

B. This second longest river rises in the Cantabrian mountains in northern Spain and flows southeasterly to the Mediterranean coast between Barcelona and Valencia. Its name is related to that of the peninsula.

Answer: Ebro (prompt on: Iberus)

C. The major river of southern Spain, it flows past Cordoba and Seville before emptying into the Gulf of Cadiz.

Answer: Guadalquivir

[Science: chemistry]

Identify the elements from the description, for 10 points each.

A. The lightest metal on the periodic table to exist in nature in its pure form, it was named after an island in the Mediterranean.

Answer: copper

B. It is the active metal in the protein chlorophyll.

Answer: magnesium

C. It is the active ingredient in some shampoos; but this element plays a more crucial role in electronics, due to its photoconductive property that when exposed to light, its resistivity decreases.

Answer: selenium

[Social science: anthropology]

Identify these terms related to European megalithic sites, for 10 points each.

A. From the French, it is a prehistoric monument consisting of a single tall upright stone.

Answer: menhir

B. A structure made up of three stones: two uprights and a horizontal lintel, such as those found within the sarsen horseshoe at Stonehenge.

Answer: trilithon

C. A simple burial chamber with two or more upright stones and one or more capstones.

Answer: dolmen or cromlech

[Literature: British]

Identify the author from works (30-20-10):

30: Poems ``Cities and Thrones and Powers'', and ``For All We Have and Are.''

20: Stories ``Stalky & Co.'' and ``Baa Baa, Black Sheep''

10: Novels Kim and Captains Courageous

Answer: Joseph Rudyard Kipling

[History: U.S. Civil War]

Identify these battles of the U.S. Civil War, for 15 points each. A. From December 11-15, 1862, Federal troops under Ambrose Burnside crossed the Rappahannock River and assaulted Marye's Heights near what city?

Answer: Fredericksburg

B. Following the disaster at Fredericksburg, Burnside was replaced by Joe Hooker, who continued the assault on the Fredericksburg area with a flanking attack farther north on the Rappahannock. What following battle, fought from May 1-5, 1863, resulted in the death of Stonewall Jackson?

Answer: Chancellorsville

[Sports: golf]

By winning this year's Senior US Open, Hale Irwin joins an elite group of golfers who have won both the regular US Open and the Senior US Open. For five points each, name the other six legendary golfers.

Answer: Jack Nicklaus, Arnold Palmer, Lee Trevino, Gary Player, Billy Casper, Orville Moody

[General knowledge/current events]

In June 1998, the U.S. National Institutes of Health adopted guidelines established by the World Health Organization defining obsesity.

A. An individual is considered overweight or obese if a parameter defined as the ratio of their weight in kilograms to the square of their height in meters is greater than or equal to a threshold value. For ten points, what is this parameter called?

Answer: body mass index or BMI

B. According to a recent (1998) report by researchers at the Centers for Disease Control*, the proportions of overweight and obese Americans have increased dramatically in the past two decades. For 5 points each, state the threshold BMI for being overweight and the percentage of the American population that falls into this category.

Answer: overweight BMI = 25, 54% (accept 49-59)

C. For 5 points each, give the threshold BMI that constitutes obesity, and state what percentage of the American population is now considered obese.

Answer: obese BMI = 30, 22% (accept 17-27)

* K.M. Flegal et al., Int. J. Obes. 22(39), 1998.

[Literature: American short stories]

Identify the short story from the opening or closing lines for 15 points each. If you need the author, you'll get 5 points.

A. 15. `` One dollar and eighty-seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it was in pennies.''
5. O. Henry (William S. Porter)

Answer: The Gift of the Magi

B. 15. `` `It isn't fair, it isn't right,' Mrs. Hutchinson screamed, and then they were upon her.''
5. Shirley Jackson

Answer: The Lottery

[Science: math]

Identify the fractals created with each of the following algorithms, for 10 points each.

A. For each point z in the complex plane, iterate the function ``z squared plus k'', where k is a complex constant characteristic of the fractal.

Answer: Julia set

B. Choose three reference points; Start at an arbitrary point and plot a point halfway between this point and an arbitrary reference point; from this plotted point, repeat.

Answer: Sierpinski triangle (or sieve, or gasket)

C. Recursively subdivide a rectangle, coloring the corners of the created rectangles by averaging the colors of the surrounding points with an arbitrary factor.

Answer: plasma

[Religion: New Testament]

Answer these questions about a famous Biblical passage, for 10 points each.

A. This two-word sentence is the shortest verse in the King James Bible.

Answer: Jesus wept.

B. In what book does this passage appear?

Answer: John 11:35

C. For a final 10 points, briefly, why does Jesus weep?

Answer: because Lazarus is dead, and Jesus was not present to save him, and Mary is mourning her dead brother. [accept anything close]