Subject: Date: Wed, 18 Jun 1997 07:26:16 -0700 From: David Matthew Levinson <dmlevins> To: 1996 WIT 4 -- "Where's Gaius?" Questions by Vanderbilt TOSSUPS 1. His _A Philosophical Essay on Probability_ is famous for its confident application of inverse probability methods, and his _Celestial Mechanics_ established Newton's theory without a doubt. A transformation important in differential equations and the del- squared operator are named for him. FTP, name this scientist, who had no need of the hypothesis of God. Answer: Pierre-Simon, Marquis de _Laplace_ 2. Proetus' wife Stheneboea tempted this man, but when he refused he accused him of trying to seduce her. Proetus sent him to King Iobates for punishment. After performing several labors, he attempted to storm Olympus and became hated by the gods. FTP, name this man, best known for taming Pegasus. Answer: _Bellerophon_ 3. Its foundations can be found as early as the eleventh century in Europe, and Fransico Suarez was one of its last great propo- nents. Based largely on teachings of Aristotle, it attempted to incorporate logic into theology and was taught in schools by the Catholic Church. FTP, identify this school of philosophy, whose famous followers include William of Ockham and St. Thomas Aquinas. Answer: _Scholasticism_ 4. It was passed chiefly as a direct result of political malpractices in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Maryland during the elections of 1938. In 1940, an amendment to it was passed which extended its scope to include state and local government workers whose salaries were drawn from Federal funds. It prohibited use of official authority or favor to influence the outcome of Presidential or Congressional elections. FTP, name this 1939 act which happens to share its name with a senator from Utah. Answer: _Hatch_ Act 5. The early influence of Schopenhauer, Wagner, and Nietzsche strengthened his belief that ordinary life was insufficient for an artist's inner needs, a belief reflected in his first novel. He made extensive explorations into various mythologies, and his _The Transposed Heads_ is based on an Indian legend. FTP, name this German Nobel laureate, best known for _Mario and the Magician_, _Buddenbrooks_ and _Death in Venice_. Answer: Thomas _Mann_ 6. Henry I of England died after overindulging himself in a dish of these creatures. They breed in fresh water, and the young live as larvae for about 5 years before migrating to the sea. Members of family Petromyzontidae, they are generally slimy and have no paired fins. FTP, name this fish which like the hagfish is a jawless, blood-sucking parasite. Answer: _lamprey_ 7. Surrounding rice fields were covered with 10 feet of volcanic ash, and the large volume of volcanic material in the atmosphere affected global climate. The huge Clark Air Force Base was completely abandoned, while 343 were killed and 200,00 were left homeless. FTP name this volcanic eruption of June 1991 on Luzon Island, the Philippines. Answer: Mount _Pinatubo_ 8. A highlight of this opera is the first-act quartet "Mir ist so wunderbar." The plot centers around a Spanish nobleman, Florestan, who incurs the hatred of Don Pizarro, the Governor of the State Prison. Its author originally wanted this opera to be titled _Leonore_ after the title character, who disguises herself as a man. FTP, name this 1806 opera by Ludwig von Beethoven. Answer: _Fidelio_ 9. By the time of the Great Potato Famine in the 1840's, the name was evoked by agrarian insurgents in the counties of Cavan, Longford, Donegal, and Tyrone. The name first cropped up in the US in 1857 when a society of that name was said to be working for Pennsylvania Democrats. FTP give the common name, most famously identifying the society that was the instument of vengeance for anthracite mine workers in Pennsylvania. Answer: _Molly Maguires_ 10. It was developed by Samuel Hahnemann in the late eighteenth century and is often considered most effective in chronic cases. Drugs are often used in only minute quantities in an attempt to accelerate the symptoms of a disease, and thus accelerate healing. FTP, identify this form of alternative medicine which states that symptoms of a disease are evidence of the body's own curative process in response to the disease. Answer: _Homeopathy_ (Homeopathic Medicine) 11. In 451 they pressed through northern Italy and threatened to invade Rome. While emperor Valentinian III was hiding in Ravenna, Pope Leo I successfully negotiated peace, sparing Rome for at least a little longer until the Vandals would sack it 4 years later. FTP, identify this central Asiatic people who plundered the late Roman Empire in the 5th century under Atilla. Answer: _Huns_ 12. They hold to a strict dietary regime, abstaining from such foods as pork, milk, and coffee. Based largely on the ideals of political activist Marcus Garvey, one of their most holy sacraments is considered illegal in the United States. FTP, identify this religion which views Haile Selassie as its messiah and is known for its "ganga" and dreadlocks. Answer: _Rastafarianism_ 13. He was imprisoned and pilloried in 1702 for his _The Shortest Way with Dissenters_, which satirized the Church of England by ironically proposing that all nonconformist preachers be hanged. He is the first author of ghost stories in modern English litera- ture, producing stories such as "A True Relation of the Apparition of One Mrs. Veal." FTP, name this author best known for _A Journal of the Plague Year_ and _Robinson Crusoe_. Answer: Daniel _Defoe_ 14. This war began after the death of Augustus II, with France, Spain, and Sardinia supporting Stanislaus I and Russia and Austria backing Augustus III. The Treaty of Vienna, ratified in 1738, put Augustus III on the throne and gave the provinces of Parma and Piacenza to Austria. FTP, identify this war fought from 1733-38 which resolved the conflict over the monarchy of Poland. Answer: War of the _Polish Succession_ 15. He was born in Jersey City in 1929 and educated at Rutgers University. Many of his early short stories were published in _Galaxy_ magazine in 1952, but his first novel, _The Broken Place_, was not published until 1968. FTP, identify this author most famous for writing the novel used as the basis for the movie _Gettysburg_, entitled _The Killer Angels_. Answer: Michael _Shaara_ 16. This solar phenomena is one of the rarest to be observed, as it requires very specific atmospheric conditions and a sharp horizon. As the last sliver of sun disappears over the horizon at sunset, or as the first sliver of sun appears at sunrise, the refraction of the light through the great stretch of atmosphere will cause a brief flash of colored light. FTP, name this phenomena, so named because of the color produced by it. Answer: _Green Flash_ 17. Written in heroic couplets, this poem is addressed to and was inspired by Henry St. John, Lord Bolingbroke. It is divided into four epistles dealing with man's relation to the universe, himself, society, and happiness. Like Milton's _Paradise Lost_ it aims to "vindicate the ways of God to man." FTP, name this deistic poem, written by Alexander Pope. Answer: An _Essay on Man_ 18. Many of his later works were inspired by the intense religios- ity of the Counter-Reformation, including his 1594's _Last Supper_. Considered one of the most dynamic painters of the sixteenth century, his obsession with action made many of his works appear to be night scenes illuminated by flashes of light. FTP, identify this artist of such works as _Saint Mark Freeing a Christian Slave_ and _Christ Before Pilate_ , whose real name was Jacopo Robusti and whose nickname means "Little Dyer." Answer: _Tintoretto_ 19. It has 12 levels, the lowest of which is undetectable by humans. Originally invented in 1902, it was later redistributed in the 1930s by an American, though modern technology has made it obsolete. FTP, identify this scale still occasionally employed when an insufficient number of seismographs are available, which measures the intensity of earthquakes. Answer: Modified _Mercalli_ Scale 20. The son of a Quaker corset maker, in 1792 he was made a French citizen, but was imprisoned and stripped of his citizenship with the fall of the Girondists. While in prison he began his work which begins "I believe in one God, and no more; and I hope for happiness beyond this life." FTP, name this Revolutionary War progagandist, known for works such as _The Age of Reason_, _The American Crisis_, and _Common Sense_. Answer: Thomas _Paine_ 21. He was born in 1857 in Hamburg and studied under Helmholtz and Kirchoff at the University of Berlin. In 1885 he was awarded the position of Professor of Physics at Kalsruhe, where he made his most important discovery. FTP, identify this German physicist who died of blood poisoning at age 36 and who in 1888 discovered radio waves. Answer: Heinrich _Hertz_ 22. This Confederate soldier first made his mark in the Mexican War, where he gained his first experience as a cavalry soldier. Born in Alabama and raised in Kentucky, he gained prestige as one of the most resourceful soldiers in the Confederacy when he and several of his cavalry soldiers actually escaped from a prison by the fanciful "tunnel dug with a spoon" method. FTP, name this Confederate cavalrymen who escaped from a Federal penitentiary in Columbus, Ohio after his unsuccessful raid of the North through Kentucky. Answer: John Hunt _Morgan_ 23. He was born at Stuttgart in 1770 and later studied at Tubingen, where his contemporaries included Schelling and the poet Holderlin. He later served as a tutor of philosophy in Jena, where he assisted in editing the _Kritisches Journal Der Philosophie_, to which he contributed his most famous work. FTP, identify this German philosopher, a strong influence on Karl Marx and author of _The Phenomenology of Spirit_. Answer: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich _Hegel_ 24. In 1823, poor health sent him to the Caucasus, where he studied orchestration and harmony and first became interested in Russian folk music. He composed orchestras such as _Kamarinskaya_ and _Overture-Symphony on Russian Themes_. FTP, name this composer better known for _A Life for a Czar_ and _Russlan and Ludmilla_. Answer: Michael _Glinka_ 1996 WIT 4: "Where's Gaius?" Questions by Vanderbilt 1. FTP each, identify the following heretical factions of the early Christian church. 1. This following believed that Christ was subordinate to God, and therefore they were both the same yet separate. The Council of Nicaea was convened to attempt to eradicate this group. Answer: _Arianism_ 2. This faction taught that the validity of the sacraments was based on the integrity of the individual rather than the church as a whole. For this reason, they rejected the conversion of Constantine and many of the bishops who had submitted to persecu- tion during the reign of Diocletian. Answer: _Donatism_ 3. They held the view that Christ had two distinct natures--human and divine. They were led by the patriarch of Constantinople that died circa 451 AD. Answer: _Nestorianism_ 2. Many organic compounds are synthesized using reagents contain- ing an inorganic atom. FTSNOP, identify the following reagents common to organic synthesis. 1. FFP, identify the reagent containing magnesium and a halide ion, often used to convert alkyl halides to alcohols or alkanes. Answer: _Grignard_ Reagents 2. FTP, identify the reagent conatining copper and lithium used in organometallic coupling, formed from an organolithium molecule and a copper halide. Answer: _Gilman_ Reagents 3. F15P, identify the metal present as a catalyst on a carbon base which will force benzene to undergo hydrogenation in the presence of hydrogen gas. This is the only metal known to force benzene to undergo this reaction at atmospheric pressure. Answer: _Rhodium_ 3. 4. Identify the author, 30-20-10-5. 30-- His _Century's Ebb_ was posthumously published in 1975 and contains a clear self-portrait in the character of Jay Pignatelli. 20-- His service in WWI inspired his first book, _One Man's Initiation-1917_, which featured his "newsreel" and cinematic techniques of fiction. 10--He served in WWI in the Norton-Harjes Ambulance Service. 5--He authored the _U.S.A._ trilogy. Answer: John Roderigo _Dos Passos_ 5. Identify the following constellations FTP each. 1. This constellation contains "ground zero" on the celestial sphere, where 0 hours right ascension meets the celestial equator. Answer: _Pisces_ 2. The center of the Milky Way is in the direction of this constellation, which explains the prominence of nebulae and other deep-space objects. This constellation contains more Messier objects than any other. Answer: _Saggitarius_ 3. Due to procession, the alpha star in this small constellation will replace Polaris as the north star in about 10,000 years. Answer: _Lyra_ 6. FTP each, give the scientific names of these paranormal occurrences or objects. 1. An object that materializes during a seance, having been transported paranormally by a medium from a distant place. Answer: _Apport_ 2. The ability to cause objects to spontaneously burst into flame. Answer: _Pyrokinesis_ 3. The study of mysterious animals that are unknown, supposedly extinct, or found far from their natural habitat. The most popular example is the supposed existence of crocodiles in the sewers of New York City. Answer: _Cryptozoology_ 7. Identify the literary works given their protagonists FTP, for five if you need the author. 1. 10 pts: Joe Christmas 5 pts: William Faulkner Answer: _Light in August_ 2. 10 pts: James Wait 5 pts: Joseph Conrad Answer: _Nigger of the Narcissus_ 3. 10 pts: Harry Haller 5 pts: Hermann Hesse Answer: _Steppenwolf_ 8. Answer these questions about Jason and the Argonauts for the stated number of points. 1. 5 pts: The son of Calliope and Apollo, his singing helped the Argonauts get past the Sirens. Answer: _Orpheus_ 2. 10 pts: To what land did they travel in search of the Golden Fleece? Answer: _Colchis_ 3. 15 pts: Name the blind old king in Salmydessus who whom the Argonauts saved from punishment from the Harpies. Answer: _Phineus_ 9. Identify the composers of the following lesser known works FTP each: a. Prelude and Fugue in C Major Johann Sebastien _Bach_ b. Xerxes William Frederick _Handel_ c. String Serenade in E Major Antonin _Dvorak_ 10. Put the following events in the history of Italian unification in chronological order from earliest to most recent FFP each. They are: Cavour becomes prime minister of Sardinia, Garibaldi conquers the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Victor Emmanuel II seizes Rome, Charles Albert abdicates as king of Sardinia, the Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed, and the Austro-Prussian War gives Italy control of Venetia. Answer: Charles Albert (1849), Cavour (1852), Garibaldi (1860), kingdom of Italy (1861), Austro-Prussian War (1866), Rome seized (1870) 11. Identify these Racine works from clues FTP each. 1. Set in Epirus, the title character is loved by her captor, Pyrrhus, whom she hates. Answer: _Andromaque_ 2. Purportedly based on actual events in Constantinople in 1608, it depicts the imprisoned title character's pretense of love for Roxane, who plans to free him and put him on the throne. Answer: _Bajazet_ 3. The title character falls in love with her stepson Hippolytus and commits suicide, leaving a note that he tried to violate her. Answer: _Phaedre_ 12. Identify the following treaties from American history, 5-10-15. 1. 5 pts: This treaty established provisions for supressing the slave trade and settled the US-Canadian border in New England. Answer: _Webster-Ashburton_ Treaty 2. 10 pts: It was also known as the Transcontinental Treaty and forced Spain to give up claims to the Oregon Territory in exchange for US recognition of its sovereignty over Texas. Answer: _Adams-Onis_ Treaty 3. 15 pts: This 1903 treaty included a $10 million initial payment and $250 thousand annuity for control of the Panama Canal Zone, but the Colombian government refused to ratify it. Answer: _Hay-Herran_ Treaty 13. I will describe a chemical law or principle and you give me the name of it for the stated number of points. 1. 15 pts: The molar entropy of vaporization of all liquids is 88J/(K*mol) Answer: _Trouton_'s rule 2. 10 pts: When electron's are added to orbitals of equal energy, they will half-fill every orbital, with the spins remaining parallel, before pairing in any orbital. Answer: _Hund_'s rule 3. 5 pts: The product of indeterminancies of the position and the momentum of an object must exceed (a constant/(4pi)). Answer: _Heisenberg_'s Uncertainty principle 14. Answer the following concerning regional winds, 5-10-15. 1. 5 pts: This wind blows hot, dry air from the mountains of Southern California towards the coastline. Answer: _Santa Ana_ Wind 2. 10 pts: Known as the ghibli in Libya and Khamsia in Egypt, these winds draw hot air from the Sahara north towards the Mediterranean. Answer: _Sirocco_ 3. 15 pts: This wind is associated with blizzard conditions and most frequently occurs in Siberia and southern Russia. Answer: _buran_ winds 15. Identify the Greek 30-20-10. 30) Brought by Pericles and taught by Socrates, he won a brilliant victory for Athens in 410 at Cyzicus. 20) He was suspected of desecrating the Hermae and of other profanities in Athens. 10) When recalled to trial, he escaped to Sparta, to whom he offered valuable advice. He later returned to Athens and was appointed general at Samos. _Alcibiades_ 16. Answer these World Series-related questions, 15-5 on each one: a) (15) Of the six national championships won by this college basketball team (more than any other team except for UCLA), five of them have occurred in the same year that the Yankees have won the World Series. Game 4 hero Jim Leyritz of the Yanks played baseball at this school. (5) Just like the Yankees, 1978 had marked the last time that this team had won the championship until this year rolled around. ANS: Univ. of KENTUCKY b) (15) Perhaps this election year will buck the trend of Yankee = World Series results coinciding with GOP wins in the presidential election. That is, whenever the Yanks make it to the Series during an election year, their ultimate victory or defeat always seems to coincide with the election results for the GOP. You have to go all the way back to this election year = to find one which didn't fit that pattern. (5) In this year, the New York Giants went down in defeat to the pinstripes a few weeks before the GOP's Alf Landon lost in what was then the biggest popular landslide in election history. ANS: 1936 17. Most of William Shakespeare's plays were based on other works. For ten points each, given the source tell me the play he wrote based on it. 1. Plautus' _Menaechmi_ Answer: The _Comedy of Errors_ 2. The 1590 Thomas Lodge work _Rosalynde_ Answer: _As You Like It_ 3. The main plot is taken from an anonymous play of the same name and the subplot is taken from Ariosto's _I suppositi_ Answer: _The Taming of the Shrew_ 18. Louis XIII through XVI ruled France for 183 straight years. For ten points each, give me the familial relationship between: 1. Louis XIII and Louis XIV Answer: _Father - Son_ 2. Louis XIV and Louis XV Answer: _Great Grandfather - Great Grandson_ 3. Louis XV and Louis XVI Answer: _Grandfather - Grandson_ 19. Identify the following concerning acids, 5-10-15. 1. 5 pts: He first defined an acid as a compound willing to accept a pair of electrons in a chemical reaction. Answer: Gilbert _Lewis_ 2. 10 pts: He developed the pH scale to describe the relative strength of acids based on the concentration of hydrogen ions. Answer: Soren _Sorenson_ 3. 15 pts: A 50 percent solution of this element's fluoride in hydrofluoric acid is presently the strongest acid known, with an acidity function that indicates it to be over 1 trillion times as strong as concentrated sulfuric acid. Answer: _Antimony_ 20. Identify the Donizetti opera from characters. 1. Nemorino and Adina Answer: _L'Elisir d'Amore_ or The _Elixir of Love_ 2. Enrico Ashton and Raimondo Answer: _Lucia di Lammermoor_ 3. Baldassare, Leonora, and Fernando Answer: _La Favorita_ 21. When Clovis died in 511, he had conquered most of Gaul and parts of northern Spain, making his kingdom one of the largest of the day. In his will he left his kingdom to be divided among his four sons, three of whom were by his wife and the other by a concubine. Answer the following FTSNOP a. First FTP, name the wife of Clovis who influenced his conver- sion to Christianity and bore him three sons. _Clotild_ b. Now, FFP each, identify the 4 sons of king Clovis. _Theuderic_, _Chlodomer_, _Childebert_, _Lothar_ 22. Identify the following artists of the subject of David. 1. This artist sculpted a stone David in 1408 to be placed on the buttress of Florence Cathedral; he later sculpted a bronze David between 1446-60. Answer: _Donatello_ 2. This man painted David with the severed head of Goliath on a leather shield (c.1450-7) Answer: Andrea del _Castagno_ 3. This teacher of Leonardo sculpted a bronze David in the early 1470's. Answer: Andrea del _Verrocchio_ 23. Identify the philosopher from clues, 30-20-10. 30: He led a peripatetic life and wrote a number of treatises, including one on Brahma-sutra and one on one of the Vedas. 20: Born in Kerala in 788, he is considered the leader of the Hindu revival in India after the Buddhist period. 10: His name is associated with the legendary magical stones found in _Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom_. _Shankara_ 24. Identify these characters from Charles Dickens' _Barnaby Rudge_ for the stated number of points. 1. 5 pts: This pale, red-haired character dresses all in green and carries a large raven with him. Answer: Barnaby _Rudge_ 2. 15 pts: Name the raven. Answer: _Grip_ 3. This is the employer murdered by Mr. Rudge on the night of Barnaby's birth. Answer: Mr. _Haredale_ 25. Answer the following questions about the Nullification Controversy of the early nineteenth century for the stated number of points. 1. 5 pts: What South Carolina statesman's _Fort Hill Address_ reaffirmed and elaborated the doctrine of nullification? Answer: John C. _Calhoun_ 2. 10 pts: What 1833 bill empowered President Jackson to enforce the revenue laws by the use of military force if necessary? Answer: _Force Bill_ 3. 15 pts: Give the official name of the 1832 Proclamation by Jackson which argued that "Disunion by armed forces is treason." Answer: _Proclamation to the People of South Carolina_ 26. Mimicry is a biological phenomenon characterized by a superficial resemblance of two or more organisms not related. I will describe a kind of mimicry, and you give me the name, for ten points each. 1. A form in which two or more unrelated noxious, or dangerous, organisms exhibit similar warning systems. Answer: _Mullerian_ 2. This form of mimicry in which a harmless organism resembles a noxious, or dangerous, organism that is equipped with a warning system. Answer: _Batesian_ 3. A form of mimicry in which a predator resembles its prey, or a parasite its host. Answer: _Aggressive_ 27. FTP each identify these philosophical works of Sir Francis Bacon. 1. This first part of the unfinished _Instauratio Magna_ is concerned with enlarging the scope of human knowledge; he presents an Ockhamist view of religion--that faith and reason not encroach upon each other. Answer: _The Advancement of Learning_ 2. This work presents the scientific method as an instrument of discovery. Answer: _Novum Organum_ 3. This Utopian fable contains the famous Bensalem institution for scientific study: "Solomon's House." Answer: _The New Atlantis_