The Mark Discordia Singles Tournament
Seeding Round 2
Question Set 2: 60 tossups
Editing and non-science questions by Matt Weiner
Science by Anthony de Jesus, the Washington University Academic Team, and Matt Weiner
1. Manifestations of the psychomotor kind of this disorder may be preceded by olfactory hallucinations; the other two kinds are grand mal and petit mal. It can be mitigated by drugs such as trimethadione, phenytoin, valproate, and a concoction of snake venoms known as venene, but severe cases are sometimes treated by cutting the corpus callosum. FTP, identify this neurological disorder characterized by seizures.
2. Since Rochester and Butler found it as a V-shaped track, it was first called the charged V-particle. It can decay by weak interactions not involving leptons or photons, as it, hyperons, and their antiparticles are called “strange particles.” In 1964, Cronin and Fitch found that its decay can violate CP symmetry. leading to the concept of CPT symmetry. FTP, name this meson which contains a strange or an antistrange quark.
ANSWER: kaon [or K meson]
3. Born at Edwardstone, he took a journey on the Arbella, during which he wrote the sermon A Model of Christian Charity, setting forth his vision that a certain new settlement would be as “a city set on a hill.” In 1630 he brought a charter for the town of Boston, and he founded the New England Confederation in 1643. FTP, name this twelve-time governor of the Massachussets colony.
ANSWER: John Winthrop
4. Although he has used the alias “Benjamin Pondexter,” his true name is unknown. A former professional baseball player, he once had a brain tumor which caused him to hallucinate that everyone was his arch-nemesis. He has the ability to use anything as a projectile weapon with remarkable aim. FTP, name this onetime killer of Elektra and enemy of Daredevil.
5. This play’s first scene ends with the imprisonment of the Bishop of Coventry. Soon, Maragaret de Clare is betrothed to the former governor of Ireland, but that man falls out of favor once again and is captured and given to Pembroke, who loses him to Warwick. A vague death order results in Lightborn killing the title character; as a result, Mortimer is beheaded by the new king, and Isabella is imprisoned. FTP, name this Christopher Marlowe play about a fourteenth–century English king’s affair with Gaveston.
ANSWER: “The Troublesome Reign and Lamentable Death of Edward the Second, King of England, with the Tragical Fall of Proud Mortimer”
6. He established the vocabulary for medieval analysis of universals in his distinction between Aristotelean essences and Platonic forms in the Commentary on the Isagoge of Porphyry. Another work, written in the Menippean satirical style, argued for the coexistence of Godly omniscience and human free will and reconciled the existence of eternal evil with the possibility of happiness. FTP, name this author of The Consolation of Philosophy.
ANSWER: Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius
7. In addition to an MRI, a physician might perform a Lachman test in order to determine the extent of an injury to this body part, which is torn sometime during the life of four out of every thousand people. Usually occuring during a sudden stop and direction change during athletics, it emits an audible pop when tearing. FTP, identify this knee ligament.
ANSWER: anterior cruciate ligament [or ACL]
8. His nonfiction includes The Road to Volgograd, about Russia; a description of Malaysia in The Key to the Door; and the autobiography Raw Material. He has also written several children’s books about Marmelade Jim. Arthur Seaton is the protagonist of his first novel, Saturday Night and Sunday Morning. FTP, name this former Angry Young Man, author of the short story collection The Loneliness of the Long-Distance Runner.
ANSWER: Alan Sillitoe
9. In his poems, he wrote of a girl who “on a summer’s day /Raked the meadow sweet with hay” and yearned for “Health that mocks the doctor’s rules,/Knowledge never learned of schools.” He celebrated his home region in Legends of New England in Prose and Verse and in the dialect of a poem describing the passing of time in a house isolated due to the aftermath of a storm. FTP, name this author of “Maud Muller,” “Barefoot Boy,” “Snow-Bound,” and “Barbara Frietchie.”
ANSWER: John Greenleaf Whitter
10. A consequence of the Treaty of New Echola, It was immediately followed by a dispute over unification which saw the assasination of John Ridge, Major Ridge and Elias Boudinot. John Ross was the leader of the cooperative forces, while the government-appointed commander was Winfield Scott. A quarter of the participants died from exposure or abuse in the stockades. FTP, identify the common name for the movement of the Cherokee from Georgia to Oklahoma.
ANSWER: the Trail of Tears [accept equivalent descriptive answers before “common“]
11. There are sixteen in all, arranged as two sets of eight. Located distally from the radius and ulna, but proximally to the phalanges, these bones glide among each other in four directions. FTP, identify these wrist bones which lend their name to a syndrome caused by repetitive motion, such as typing.
12. Debate over this bill drew more people to testify before the House Ways and Means Committee than any comparable bill since the Civil War. Including over twenty thousand items in its scope, it replaced the Fordney-McCumber Act. Its namesake Oregon Representative and Utah Senator, both Republicans, sponsored its 1930 passage. FTP, name this bill which raised the general tariff to forty-two percent, worsening the Great Depression.
ANSWER: Smoot-Hawley tariff [or Hawley-Smoot tariff; or Tariff Act of 1930; prompt on Tariff Act]
13. In addition to pushing for a voluntary minimum wage and maximum work week, it attempted to set uniform prices at an artificially raised level. Directed by Hugh Johnson, it asked participating shops to display the Blue Eagle. Many of its operations were dissolved in 1935 after the Supreme Court ruled that its industrial codes were unconstitutional in the “sick chicken case.” FTP, name this executive agency created by the National Industrial Recovery Act.
ANSWER: National Recovery Administration
14. It includes Sawmill Bay and McTavish Arm. Its shores were once home to the Eldorado Mines and Port Radium; now, Déline is on its southern shore and Echo Bay its eastern. Its namesake river flows from it through the Franklin Mountains to the Mackenzie. FTP, name this largest lake in Canada.
ANSWER: Great Bear Lake [or Sahtu]
15. The June 27 “Two Thousand Words” declaration in the Literary Gazette demanded further reforms as an extension of this movement. A conference at Cierná-nad-Tisou failed to produce a resolution, and the foreign response to that failure was protested by various methods including the self-immolation of Jan Palach. On April 17, 1969, it was firmly ended when Gustav Husák became First Secretary, replacing Alexander Dubcek. FTP, name this movement for increased liberty in Czechoslovakia.
ANSWER: Prague Spring
16. One of his works features a relationship between Edouard and Oliver Molinier. Another work follows a pastor’s natural son Jacques and adopted daughter Gertrude. Still another of his novels attacks the simplicity of Protestant morals through the tale of Jerome Pallisier and Alissa, while another follows the moral liberation of Melanque and newly discovered homosexual Michael. FTP, name this author of The Counterfeiters, The Pastoral Symphony, Strait is the Gate, and The Immoralist.
ANSWER: André Gide
17. Richard I claimed that he found it in a tomb at Glastonbury and gave it to Tancred of Sicily in 1191. Once, Accolon stole it and replaced it with a replica but was discovered. One tale of its end says that Bedivere threw it into the water on the third command, after twice disobeying, while another version says it was returned to its bestower, Nimue. Its key magical power lay in its scabbard, which prevented the wearer from losing blood. FTP, name this sword bestowed by the Lady of the Lake upon King Arthur.
ANSWER: Excalibur [or Caliburn; prompt on Sword in the Stone]
18. The term was introduced by Cantor in 1883. Sets that may be described with this word include integers, natural numbers, and any finite set, but not the real numbers, as Cantor first showed in a diagonal proof. FTP, identify this adjective, describing an infinite set that can be placed in a one-to-one correspondence with the rational numbers.
19. This album features covers of “Rivers of Babylon” and “We're Only Gonna Die For Our Arrogance” as well as a tribute to KRS-One. “Don't Push,” “Scarlet Begonias,” and “Chica Me Tipo” are other tracks. Highlights are the sample from Beyond the Valley of the Dolls on “Smoke Two Joints,” “Waiting for my Ruca,” and “Date Rape.” FTP, name this 1992 album which marked the debut of Sublime.
ANSWER: 40 Ounces to Freedom
20. “I believe my sins are unpardonable.” “My soul sometimes leaves my body.” “I believe in law enforcement.” “I like repairing a door latch.” “I am a very sociable person.” The test which includes such true-or-false statements produces results across three “validity” scales and ten “clinical” scales to assess personality. FTP, name this test, now in its second version, which was developed at a namesake northern U.S. university.
ANSWER: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2
21. He has been in power for the second longest time of any current African leader, trailing only Gabon’s Omar Bongo. From 1982 to 1991 he banned opposition parties; although he is now ruling under a theoretical democratic mandate, he has been accused of ordering the mutilation of Safina candidate Richard Leakey. FTP, name this man, the president of Kenya.
ANSWER: Daniel Arap Moi
22. It is greater than expected in the Donnan effect as, for colloidal electrolytes in solutions with low concentration of electrolytes, it is greater than that expected for colloidal ions alone, because the ions are not distributed equally at equilibrium. It compensates for the lowering of the chemical potential caused by the solute. FTP, name the pressure difference required to prevent spontaneous flow across a semipermeable membrane, often represented by the Greek letter pi.
ANSWER: osmotic pressure
23. The concept appeared in 1683, but the term in its modern sense was coined by Cauchy in 1812. In knot theory, it is used to construct Alexander polynomials. In general, it only exists for square matrices, and it is the same for a given matrix and its transpose. FTP, name this quantity which can be used to solve a system of n linear equations in n unknowns by using Cramer's Rule.
24. Peripheral characters include Yudelson and Mary Dale. The title character wins a role in “April Follies” using the stage name of Jack Robin rather than the birth name of Jakie Rabinowitz, shunning his cantor father, but misses opening night in order to sing “Kol Nidre” at the synagogue. FTP, name this film debut of Al Jolson, the first movie with clear dialogue.
ANSWER: The Jazz Singer
25. This collection of five pieces contains works in D major, A minor, C minor, G major, and C major, respectively. Although not always performed as a unified suite, each piece contains the work’s trademark “alternating scherzo and trio sections.” Oft-heard sections include “All Men Shall Be Free” and “Land of Hope and Glory.” FTP, name this cycle of marches by Edward Elgar.
ANSWER: Pomp and Circumstance Marches
26. It was first published as a ten-part serial in The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine. The opening scene, featuring a reporter, is an explicit attempt to mark this novel as a work of realism, but it has been criticized on that note for failing to flesh out the title character’s wife Persis or a rival, Mr. Corey. The main plot follows a Vermont farmer turned Boston mineral paint producer accumulating fortune and status. FTP, identify this novel by William Dean Howells.
ANSWER: The Rise of Silas Lapham
27. The number of bits used to encode the key drastically affects the effectiveness of this algorithm; a 56-bit code can be broken in weeks, but using two 1024 bit numbers pushes the cracking time to billions of years. Its effectiveness also depends on the fact that there is no known polynomial-time algorithm that can factor large numbers. FTP, name this encryption technique, the basis for PGP.
ANSWER: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman encryption
28. It contains its country’s tallest building, the Torre Colpatria; the Plaza of Santander; the Palace of Saint Carlos; the Salt Cathedral; and the Gold Museum of pre-Columbian metalwork. Founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, it is located in the Cundinamarca department. FTP, identify this most populous city and capital of Colombia.
29. In Lectures Concerning the Generation of Animals he founded the field of embryology, but he is associated with an even bigger scientific discovery. He announced his other finding at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital in 1619, but much of the scientific community was skeptical until 1661, when Malpighi proved the existence of capillaries. FTP, name this man who postulated that blood circulates.
ANSWER: William Harvey
30. A late Union rendezvous with the platoon corps at Stafford Heights gave the confederates time to arrive before the attempted crossing of the river which protected this battle’s namesake city. Ambrose Burnside led Union forces in the first engagement after McClellan’s removal, and the Confederates, with J.E.B. Stuart and Stonewall Jackson present, were commanded by Robert E. Lee. FTP, name this December 1862 battle which saw 12600 union casualties at the Rappahannock river.
ANSWER: Battle of Fredericksburg
31. The relative presence of this element determines whether or not crude oil is classified as sweet or sour. Its ion is useful in selective precipitation, as the solubilities of salts containing it span a wide range and can be regulated using pH. Found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, as well as in the ores known as pyrites, it is used to vulcanize rubber. FTP, name this element obtained by the Frasch process, also known as brimstone.
32. Dedicated to Frank Harris, its cast includes the servants Harold, James, Mason, and Phipps. It opens with a discussion of the tedium of parties at the Hartlocks’ and ends with Mabel accepting the marriage proposal of Lord Arthur Goring, who was once engaged to Lady Cheveley. Through deceit, Cheveley attempts to ruin the marriage of Robert and Gertrude Chiltern. FTP, name this Oscar Wilde play about marital fidelity.
ANSWER: “An Ideal Husband”
33. One of his plays features a group which has been waiting at the title location for ten years; that play was called “spiritual pollution” by his native country’s government. He paints the covers for all of his published works and has translated authors such as Antonin Artaud and Bertolt Brecht into his native language. His works include the autobiographical One Man’s Bible and the novel Soul Mountain. FTP, name this Chinese author of “Bus Stop,” the winner of the 2000 Nobel Prize for Literature.
ANSWER: Gao Xingjian
34. After being driven to the shore, they killed Abderos, who watched over them during a battle with the Bistones, whose king owned them. Taken from Thrace to Myceneae, they were eventually let loose near Olympus, where they were killed by forest beasts. FTP, name these flesh-eating equines, captured as the eighth labor of Hercules.
ANSWER: the mares of Diomedes [accept horses of Diomedes]
35. He died during an expedition against the Massagetae, and his successor claimed the throne after a struggle with Smerdis. One of his few other failures was never defeating Amasis II of Egypt. Beginning his career as the ruler of the district of Anshan, he overthrew Astyages of the Medes, Nabonidus the Babylonian, and Croesus the Lydian; founded the city of Pasargadae; and returned the Jews to Jerusalem. FTP, name this founder of the Achaemenid dynasty in Persia.
ANSWER: Cyrus II [accept Cyrus the Great; accept Kurash; accept Zolquarnain; prompt on Cyrus]
36. Based on an 1836 Georg Büchner play, each scene in this opera is arranged in the style of a different musical form. The title character says that virtue is not for the poor while shaving the Captain, then chops wood with Andres. The story of Mary Magdalene is read directly from the Bible after Marie prostitutes herself to the drum major, leading to the title character stabbing Marie, then drowning while trying to hide the knife. FTP, name this opera by Alban Berg.
37. He issued the Twenty-eight Articles, under which his operation expanded to the prosecution of crimes such as sorcery and sodomy. Born in Vallodolid, he became the confessor of Isabella I before being appointed to a certain position by Innocent VIII to investigate insincere conversos. FTP, name this Dominican monk who oversaw the torture and execution of non-Catholics during the Spanish Inquisition.
ANSWER: Tomás de Torquemada
38. It can be measured by the Knoop, Rockwell, Vickers, or Brinell tests; categories of relevant tests include plowing and static indentation. The most famous scale for expressing it was devised in 1812 and is not linear, but rather distributed qualitatively. FTP, identify this property of minerals, defined as resistance to deformation or scratching and most commonly expressed on the Mohs scale.
39. A historically reliable tool for gauging informed expectations about the economy, it reflects expansionary expectations when sloping upward and contractionary expectations when sloping downward. Hypotheses related to it include the liquidity premium hypothesis, the segmented markets hypothesis, and the preferred habitat hypothesis. FTP, identify this curve which relates profits to maturity times with regard to bonds.
ANSWER: yield curve
40. Her husband’s nicknames for her, “lark” and “squirrel,” could refer to the mask of her true personality and her habit of hiding things. She lies about the source of the macaroons which she is caught eating, and she cares little for her children Bob, Emmy, and Ivar, preferring to let Anne and Helen raise them. Secret tension with her belittling husband comes to a head during exposure of her fraudulent dealings with Krogstad, and she decides to leave Torvald. FTP, name this central character of A Doll’s House.
ANSWER: Nora Helmer
41. Henryk Gorecki’s was subtitled Sorrowful Songs. Anthony Payne reconstructed Edward Elgar’s unfinished one. Carl Nielsen’s is the Expansive, Tchaikovsky’s is the Polish, and Scriabin’s is the Divine Poem. Charles Ives won a Pulitzer for his, The Camp Meeting. Saint-Saëns’s in C minor is known as the Organ. Schumann’s is the Rhenish, while Mendelssohn’s is the Scottish. FTP, name the form and ordinal number which all of these works have in common, which for Beethoven is the Eroica.
ANSWER: Third Symphony
42. Wyman seems to enjoy burning caterpillars, while Gallagher wants to see Mary, who is dead. Lieutenant Hearn is a “theoretical hero” while Goldstein and Ridges are heroes under a system of religious ethics rejected by most other characters. Set on Anopopei, the final battle in this novel sees the ascent of Mount Anaka blocked by hornets. General Toyaku is eventually killed through the random manuevers of Major Dalleson, in charge while General Cummings is away. FTP, name this World War II novel by Norman Mailer.
ANSWER: The Naked and the Dead
43. He was the president of the Bar Association of the District of Columbia before being appointed to the District Court in 1982 by Ronald Reagan. In June 2001, the Court of Appeals ruled that his statements about a defendant in his courtroom—comparing the defendant to “gangland killers” and saying the defendant should “be walloped with a two by four” —were ample evidence of bias. FTP, name this judge who thus saw an overturning of his order to split Microsoft.
ANSWER: Thomas Penfield Jackson
44. He dismissed his servant James Foster for bringing shaving water at the wrong temperature but otherwise is depicted as largehearted. A conversation during a game of whist leads to his accepting a certain bet. Over the course of fulfilling the wager, he rescues Auoda from suttee, is pursued by Detective Fix, who believes him to be a bank robber, and is accompanied by Passparteout. FTP, name this man who manages to go Around the World in Eighty Days.
ANSWER: Phileas Fogg [accept either name or the full name]
45. Its actual location was discovered by Roald Amundsen. Sixteenth century seamen though it was a mountain which posed a threat to passing ships. In a normal day, it wanders in an elliptical path. Such wandering may be caused by electrical currents in the Earth’s core. FTP, name this location towards which a compass points, and which is not the same as the geographic variety.
ANSWER: magnetic north pole [or north magnetic pole]
46. He claims to be “older at twenty than a lot of people who have died,” although he actually dies at age nineteen. After his death, the illegitimate daughter of his sister Caddy and Dalton Ames is named for him. He attempts to stop time, first pulling the hands off of his watch, then jumping into the Charles River and killing himself. FTP, identify this character who narrates the second part of The Sound and the Fury and links the three narrations in Absalom! Absalom!
ANSWER: Quentin MacLachan Compson III [prompt on Compson]
47. The Republicans convened in Kansas City, the Democrats in Houston. Finishing third in this year’s popular vote was first-time Presidential candidate Norman Thomas. In second place was the Democrat, who gained the votes of only the deep South, Massachussets, and Rhode Island. The campaign saw both the use of the slogan "A chicken in every pot and a car in every garage" and an anti-Catholic movement. FTP, identify the year of this presidential election, in which Al Smith lose to Herbert Hoover.
48. The same background as was used in this painting is seen in the artist’s Saint Joseph and the Christ Child. The bottom is dominated by greenery, the top by the blues and grays of a storm, and the middle by rows of white buildings. FTP, name this 1597 mannerist landscape, a painting of the artist’s city of residence by El Greco.
ANSWER: View of Toledo [or Vista de Toledo]
49. Examples of it include ammonia, water, and methane. If it contains two nonbonding pairs of electrons, as in water, it results in a bent molecular geometry, while one nonbonding pair, such as in ammonia, results in trigonal planar. It involves angles of around 109.5 degrees. FTP, name this electron-pair geometry which forms a geometrical object with four corners and four faces which are all equilateral triangles.
50. It “commands the hardy mainspring/Of the universe eterne.” It “doth bubble from this rummer,/From the golden blood of grape.” It “is drunk by every being/From kind nature's flowing breasts.” Used to represent freedom in a time when the word for “freedom” was banned, this title concept is addressed as “thou beauteous godly lightning,/Daughter of Elysium.” FTP, name this thing described in such lines by Friedrich Schiller, who wrote an “ode” to it.
ANSWER: joy [or Freude]
51. His first film as a director was The Road to Glory; Fig Leaves and A Girl In Every Port are among his other early works. Directing The Air Circus harkened back to his pre-film career as a designer and test pilot for an aircraft factory. He worked with John Wayne in Red River and Rio Bravo, and he made the first pairing of Lauren Bacall and Humphrey Bogart. FTP, name this director of His Girl Friday, To Have and Have Not, and The Big Sleep.
ANSWER: Howard Winchester Hawks
52. This country’s early literature includes the epic Sea Dragon, while its Romantic movement saw the publication of Poetic Sighs and Longings and the Cantos of António Dias. In the twentieth century, Epitaph of a Small Winner and Esau and Jacob are novels by Joaquím Machado, and novels such as Shepherds of the Night and Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands are by Jorge Amado. FTP, identify this country whose most popular novel might be Rebellion in the Backlands by Euclides da Cunha.
ANSWER: Federal Republic of Brazil [or República Federativa do Brasil]
53. For an isolated sphere, it is 4 pi epsilon-naught times the radius R, while the formula epsilon-naught times the area divided by the separation distance is that for two parallel plates. Depending on the thickness, area, and composition of the material, it is equal to the charge over the potential difference. FTP, name this quantity describing how much charge certain objects can contain, measured in farads.
54. The owl, which can only see in the dark, represents “perverted wisdom,” while the many seeds of the giant berries represent promiscuity. Believed to have been commissioned by Hendrik III of Nassau, it is both the collective name of the triptych in which it is found and the name of the center panel, between The Creation of Eve in the Garden of Eden and Hell. FTP, name this proto-surrealist painting by Hieronymus Bosch.
Answer: The Garden of Earthly Delights
55. This author’s The Buried Mirror is an analysis of symbolism in Spanish culture, while A Change of Skin is about racism and The Good Conscience about class. Some of his works involve fictionalized versions of real historical personages: Terra Nostra is set against the construction of the Escorial, while The Old Gringo features Ambrose Bierce. FTP, name this Mexican author of Where the Air is Clear and The Death of Artemio Cruz.
ANSWER: Carlos Fuentes
56. A restatement of the law of conservation of energy, it can be applied starting at any point and holds that the algebraic sum of the changes in potential is zero. An extension of Ohm’s law, it gives the value for the net sum of electromotive forces encountered. FTP, name this rule for a charge carrier in a complete transversal of any closed circuit, which is normally presented along with another law governing junctions.
ANSWER: Kirchoff’s second rule [or Kirchoff’s loop rule]
57. The Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction is regioselective, doing this only at the site of the alpha-hydrogen. The first step in the conversion of a carboxylic acid into most important substituted carboxylic acids, the relative amounts of the various isomers created by this type of reaction with alkanes depends on which diatomic gas is used. FTP, name this reaction which adds, for example, chlorine or bromine to a molecule.
58. This author’s characters include glove factory owner Seymour “Swede” Levov; Gladys, Brenda, Neil, and Father Patimkin. In a grandiosly titled book, Gil Gamesh, the only Babylonian-American in major league history and a communist spy, becomes manager of the Port Ruppert Mundys. A different novel follows the sexual insecurities of a Jewish man. FTP, name this author of American Pastoral; Goodbye, Columbus; The Great American Novel; and Portnoy’s Complaint.
ANSWER: Philip Milton Roth
59. The Bani joins it at Mopti, and the Benue is another important tributary. The cities of Ekiti, Asaba, Enugu, Onitsha, Port Harcourt, Kankan, Niamey, and Bamako lie along it. It empties into the Bight of Biafra portion of the Gulf of Guinea, forming the largest delta in Africa. FTP, name this river which runs through Guineau, Mali, and Nigeria as well as its namesake country.
ANSWER: Niger River
60. Its official dress has not been changed since the 1850s; that includes the black tailcoat and waistcoat and pin-striped trousers. Founded in 1440 by Henry VI, it is the alma mater of eighteen prime ministers. FTP, name this British public school, on whose playing fields the battle of Waterloo is said to have been won.
ANSWER: Eton College