1. Based on a 16th century English model called the "Halifax Gibbet," it was originally called the "louisette" after its inventor's colleague Dr. Antoine Louis. The prototype was made in 1789 by German harpsichord maker Tobias Schmidt, who proudly presented it to the National Assembly. For ten points name this invention which was used successfully until 1977, when Francois Mitterand abolished the death penalty in France.
ANSWER: the guillotine
2. Seven army officers, three ex-officers and two members of the Irish Constabulary had been murdered, so on November 21, 1920, British troops opened fire on a football crowd and murdered fourteen people in Dublin's Croke Park. Fifty-odd years later on January thirtieth paratroopers killed thirteen Roman Catholic demonstrators at an illegal rally. For ten points, give the shared name of these events, also the name of a John Schlesinger film, an Itchy and Scratchy short, and a song by U2.
ANSWER: Sunday Bloody Sunday
3. His real name is Aloysius, and while he was born in Hawaii, he now lives with his family in a cave in New York's Central Park. He likes cabbages and spaghetti, as well as roller-skating with his best friend, whom he calls "Bird." Bob and Luis finally saw him in broad daylight in 1989, ending decades of speculation that he was Big Bird's imaginary friend. For ten points, name this shy 12-foot mammoth and frequent visitor to Sesame Street.
ANSWER: Snuffleupagus (prompt on Snuffy)
4. Paul Wiggins walked into a store in Eugene, Oregon and bought this supplement over the counter. His use of it led to a four game suspension, and eventually he was waived by the Pittsburg Steelers. FTP, name the substance that Wiggins used to increase testosterone production, build strength and speed recovery from injury, banned by the NCAA, IOC, and NFL, but not by the major leagues, which explains its legal use by Mark McGwire.
ANSWER: androstenedione or just andro
5. Back in 1995, Produce Palace International purchased a computerized cash register system from TEC America. TEC claims its computer system works well and that it was the dealer All American Cash Register that is responsible for the system's failure to recognize credit card dates on and beyond a certain date. This suit marks the beginning of settlement of the currently sixteen lawsuits, all dealing, for ten points, with what computer-based problem, in which 1997 is stored as just 97 and a different year is stored as 00.
ANSWER: Y2K problem or year 2000 bug or millennium bug (it's not a virus!)
6. Inspired by its author's five-month trip through India in 1911, it follows the journey of a young man who rejects the teachings of his father and, with his good friend Govinda, searches for enlightenment. In his travels, he meets the Buddha, but rejects his teachings and continues searching for his own path. He eventually settles down by a river as a ferry man, discovering the unity of all life in the river's unending flow. For ten points name this novel written by Herman Hesse.
7. Rosie the Riveter takes a lunch break. The lone woman in a jury room holds out for acquittal. Three cheerleaders sit stunned by a 54-53 loss. A couple at the breakfast table argues the virtues of Truman and Dewey. A husband slouches in his chair as his family leaves for church. A pediatrician prepares to vaccinate a young boy. All these are scenes by, for ten points, what prolific Stockbridge, Massachusetts artist and illustrator for the Saturday Evening Post?
ANSWER: Norman Rockwell (prompt on early Saturday Evening Post )
8. In East of Eden, Steinbeck makes a reference to this god when describing the row of whorehouses in Salinas. He is the son of Dionysus and Aphrodite and was a guardian of mariners. Particularly known from Phrygia, he also served as a fertility god. For ten points, name this Greek god usually depicted as a satyr-like creature with pronounced and erect genitals.
9. Their last name was actually Stoke, but merchant Simon Stoke wanted to graft his family tree onto an older one, so he chose a family whose ancestor, Sir Pagan, had come over with William I during the Norman Conquest. Their seal is a castle argent with a lion rampant, and they are surprised to find this seal with a poor country girl from Marlott. For ten points, name this once-distinguished family whose name has deteriorated to `Derbyfield' in an 1891 novel by Thomas Hardy.
ANSWER: the D'Urbervilles
10. It has erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, with the last episodes occurring immediately before Lewis and Clark arrived in 1805. Surrounded by the Salmon and White River valleys, it was discovered in 1792 by William Broughton, who named it after the noted British admiral. For ten points, name this fourth highest peak in the Cascades located 50 miles southeast of Portland, the highest point in Oregon.
ANSWER: Mount Hood
11. His father was convicted of debasing the public coinage in Sinope, and he found himself a young exile in Athens. There he became a philosopher and gathered a reputation for self denial, reputedly living in a tub devoid of all comforts. Considered to be a wise man of the highest character, he would often wander about with only a lamp, in search of an honest man. FTP, name this Cynic famous for telling Alexander the Great to "stand from between me and the sun."
12. This winner of the second Newbery Medal awarded was badly wounded at Flanders in 1917. To keep his letters from the front to his children from being too grim, he spun tales of an eccentric physician who lived in the town of Puddleby-on-the-Marsh, cared for by his housekeeper, Dab-Dab the duck, and who learned from his parrot Polynesia to speak the language of the animals. For ten points name this American author who created Dr. Dolittle.
ANSWER: Hugh Lofting
13. It forms the entire subject of the Mandukya, one of the Upanishads, and its three sounds are used to signify Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Its written symbol is found at the beginning of religious texts and on the phallic Siva-symbol called the lingam, and it opens and closes most Hindu prayers. For ten points name the sacred Sanskrit syllable said to embody the essence of the whole universe, common in Yoga and meditation.
ANSWER: om or aum
14. It began with the attack of Massachusetts and Connecticut Puritans on an Indian village at Mystic. Within an hour the village was burned and 400 Native Americans were dead. For the next six months the Europeans hunted down the scattered remnants of the tribe to extinction. For ten points, name this 1637 war, which shares its name with the tribe that was destroyed, though not quite with a ship made famous by Herman Melville.
ANSWER: Pequot War
15. He first rose to prominence at the battle of Sedgemore, where he defeated Monmouth's Rebellion. He also led a military conspiracy against James II in 1688 that helped to usher in the Glorious Revolution. Though he was well rewarded by William and Mary, he and his wife Sarah later fell into disfavor with Queen Anne and became social outcasts. For ten points, name this legendary English general and duke, the victor at Malplaquet, Ouenarde, and Blenheim.
ANSWER: The first Duke of Marlborough (accept John Churchill)
16. Hoffmansthal's libretto for this one act opera retells a Greek legend in terms of modern psychology, with a glance toward Freud in the title character's name. When Agamemnon returned from war, he found that his wife Clytemnestra had taken Aegisthus as a lover, and Agamemnon was promptly murdered. Orestes kills Aegisthus, and his sister, the title character, grows up a "strange, brooding, savage woman." For ten points, name this Richard Strauss opera featuring a "bright one," who became Oedipus's sort of sister complex.
17. Male, single, no older than thirty, mental and physical stamina to work long hours, ability to use fists and a gun, ability to tap a wire, excellent driving ability. Fifty men made the first cut, but only nine made it through the selection process. They included Bill Gardner, a native American ex-football player and Sam Seager, a Sing Sing death row guard, but you probably know them better for the nickname they were given. For ten points, name this special arm of the Prohibition Bureau, headed and made famous by Elliot Ness.
ANSWER: the Untouchables
18. Warning: the answer is not Prince Hamlet. Reportedly this character's name bears a striking resemblance to his creator's early signature, before he dared to truncate the S as well as the T. He fights between a self that wants to dare disturb the universe and one that is like a patient etherized upon a table. For ten points, force the moment to its crisis, and name this title character, who, though he can't compete with Michelangelo, is likely the most famous creation of the man who signed his name T. Stearns Eliot.
ANSWER: J. Alfred Prufrock (accept the Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock)
19. This hypothetical condition, as postulated by Keynesian economists, occurs when the LM curve is horizontal. As a result the public is prepared to accept any money supply at the current interest rate, leaving the central bank powerless to affect the economy by restricting money supply. Recently it has been suggested that such a problem could occur at low interest rates due to banks' reluctance to meet an increased demand for loans as the interest rate falls. For ten points, name this economic theory, whose name sounds more like something you might use to plug your bathtub.
ANSWER: liquidity trap
20. She was the daughter of Oceanos and Tethys and the sister of Styx, Doris, and Tyche. She was the original consort of Zeus, and according to legend, was swallowed by Zeus because he feared she would engender a child more powerful than he. For ten points name his Greek goddess of wisdom and mother of Athena.
21. When treated with a Lindlar catalyst, they become a cis-alkene, and when treated with sodium and liquid ammonia, they become a trans-alkene. They are most commonly produced by halogen elimination from alkanes using sodium amide and have two carbons that are sp-hybridized. Like alkenes, they undergo Markovnikov addition in the absence of peroxides. FTP name this class of hydrocarbons characterized by a carbon-carbon triple bond.
22. Julie Christie in Fahrenheit 451. Elsa Lanchester in Bride of Frankenstein. Charlie Chaplin in The Great Dictator. Michael J. Fox in Back to the Future II. Alec Guinness in Kind Hearts and Coronets. Ronald Colman in The Prisoner of Zenda. Peter Sellers in Dr. Strangelove. Jeremy Irons in Dead Ringers. Hayley Mills in The Parent Trap. Leonardo DiCaprio in The Man in the Iron Mask. For ten points, what is special about the roles played by these versatile actors in these films?
ANSWER: they played double or multiple roles (accept equivalents)
23. He converted to Roman Catholicism while a 17-year-old Oxford student, and then proposed to Suzanne Curchod, but his irate father forced him to convert back and break off the engagement. Only in his writing was he free to express himself, publishing an essay on the Study of Literature and a History of the Swiss Revolution before visiting Italy and starting a new project that would assure his fame. For ten points, name this man who in 1776 published The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
ANSWER: Edward Gibbon
24. It is not likely that his work on Langland's theory and the Fundamental Lemma would catch the eye of orange-packers everywhere, but perhaps his work in solving Hilbert's eighteenth problem did. This mathematician proved that the densest configuration of spheres is by placing them in a cannonball packing arrangement. For ten points, name this University of Michigan mathematician, who along with Samuel Ferguson recently proved this sphere packing theorem, commonly known as the Kepler Conjecture.
ANSWER: Thomas C. Hales
25. Proteins are most often separated and purified using this process. Usually, a sample is applied and allowed to pass through a solid matrix. According to the choice of matrix, proteins can be separated according to their charge, their hyrophobicity, their size, or their ability to bind to particular chemical groups. As the proteins interact with the matrix, they are retarded and can be collected separately as they flow out of the bottom. For ten points, what is this class of chromatography?
ANSWER: column chromatography (prompt on chromatography on early buzz)
26. Discovered in 1950 by local scientists, it remained unknown to scientists elsewhere until 1991. When geologists heard about it, they conducted gravity field gradient and magnetic field anomaly studies and found a huge, almost circular structure buried beneath younger sediments. For ten points, name this largest impact crater on Earth, found off the north coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, that has been linked to the extinction of the dinosaurs.
ANSWER: Chicxulub Crater
27. He was born in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1929. In 1955 he received his Ph.D. in biology from Harvard. He is the author of two Pulitzer Prize-winning books, _On Human Nature_ and _The Ants_, and he continues his argument that ethics, morality and religion arose through natural selection in his latest book, Consilience. For ten points name this founder of sociobiology.
ANSWER: Edward O. Wilson